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Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and animals. The three types are arthrospira platensis, a. Fusiformis, and a. Maxima.

Cultivated around the world, arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, fish tank, and poultry industries.


The extremely dietary and ecofriendly spirulina (arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive homes. Spirulina includes practical substances, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating results. Studies performed on spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but mindset to eating probably impacts the acceptability of spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant impact of spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the collective modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory reactions, recommended by in vitro and animal studies, needs more confirmation in people. Spirulina supplements seem to impact more effectively the inherent immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The impacts on cytokines and on lymphocytes’ expansion depend upon age, gender, and body weight distinctions. In this context, aging and obesity are both connected with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal tract dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have actually been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of spirulina and probiotics could represent a brand-new strategy to improve the development of advantageous intestinal microbiota. Although spirulina may represent a practical food with prospective helpful impacts on human health, the human interventions utilized only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing spirulina ought to be evaluated in the future. (2 ).


Spirulina, likewise understood asarthrospira platensis, is a blue microalga that grows in alkaline fresh water and at high temperatures. Initially by fao, in 2008 and after that by the un, in 2011, the incredibly food of the future for sustainability, efficiency of nutrients and for the countless helpful qualities it has.

Food is history, it is culture, it is tradition and spirulina, as food, brings with it a history, a culture and a custom that are lost in the mists of time.

It is over three billion years of ages and is one of the earliest foods in the world.

It initially grew in america and africa, more particularly in lake texcoco in mexico and lake chad in north-central africa.

The very first trustworthy historical files on making use of this alga come from the testimony of thei conquistadors spaniards, to start with cortés who, following the invasion and conquest of the aztec people from 1519-1525, reported having actually found a green food, served in the form of a pie, which the aztecs called food of the gods.i dei”.

They extracted this substance from the lakes of the anahuacusata valley in mexico to use it in meals or for magical-ritual and medical functions.

In more current times, spirulina was rediscovered by a french botanist, jean léonard who, at the head of a trans-saharan belgian expedition, in 1965 reported seeing edible green cakes prepared and sold by the females of the kanembu people in the markets of the villages along the banks of chad.

Later, between completion of the 60s and the start of the 70s, the institut francais du gas got in touch with a mexican company, sosa-texcoco to demand permission to follow and study the lake flowering of spirulina algae.ina.

After a short time, in the late 1970s, the first massive production plant was born right on the shores of lake texcoco.

Today spirulina is cultivated in many nations of the world in specially created aquaculture and more extensive in australia, main america, southeast asia and africa.

In europe, the crops spread mainly to france and italy.

This food, among the most total on the planet, is now likewise given to astronauts as a dietary supplement throughout space explorations.

In order to keep intact all its organoleptic properties, highly beneficial for the human body, spirulina must be pure! Produced and distributed exclusively in the form of fresh pasta – because it is still alive and enzymatically active – to be consumed within a week, or dried under 45 to extend the storage time approximately 36 months.mesi).

Spirulina is history but it is likewise the future. The food of the future. (3 ).


Spirluina are marine organisms, normally living in freshwater alkaline lakes. However, there are marine types also. They are mesophilic, and able to make it through over a large range of temperatures; some types are even discovered in hot springs. Spriulina is edible germs. Flamingos get their pink color from consuming spirulina which contain phycoythrin. Humans likewise consume bacteria. It is known that the aztecs consumed it frequently, and it may be an essential dietary aspect in tropical locations. It is also utilized in asian cusine. In america, spirulina is sold in organic food shops as a powder or tablet. In russia, it was approved to deal with signs of radiation illness after chernobyl, because the carotenoids they include take in radiation. Evidence shows that it can stopping viral duplication. It prevents the infection from penetrating a cell wall and contaminating the cell. Spirulina also increase the production of cytokines. This advantage originates from the anti-oxidants present within the organisms. Spirulina are an exceptional source of both protein and iron, and are useful in the treatment of anemia. They can likewise act as a food source for digestive flora such as lactobacillus and bifidus. Research by wang et. Al. (2005) that bacteria also slows neurological damage in aging animals, and keeps in mind that it can reduce the damage triggered by stroke. Research studies also reveal that spirulina can avoid the release of histamines, dealing with allergic reaction symptoms.

Spriulina has nonmedical uses also. A research study by chen and pan (2005) shows that the germs can eliminate low concentrations of lead from wastewater. Research by da costa and de franca (2003) shows that spirulina is likewise capable of eliminating cadmium from its environment. (4 ).

Elements of spirulina


The most substantial bioactive compounds in spirulina are the phycocyanins, including c-phycocyanin. This is an effective anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule with an unexpected waterfall of effects: it has been discovered to protect brain and liver cells.

C-phycocyanin has a very comparable structure to the human blood protein bilirubin, which is a product of the breakdown of old red cell. Bilirubin happens to be a natural antioxidant: it binds to oxygen totally free radicals to form biliverdin. Elevated bilirubin can signify a hidden illness, however in the majority of people, bilirubin is protective. People with low levels of bilirubin are most likely to struggle with atherosclerosis and heart problem. C-phycocyanin may assist restore the oxidative balance in individuals with low bilirubin.

Spirulina is abundant in phycocyanins, which are similar in structure to human bilirubin, a natural antioxidant.

Other functional substances

Spirulina boasts a range of bioactive compounds like phenols, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. The phenols and flavonoids contribute to this algae’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties; the polysaccharides increase the immune response.

Essential nutrients.

Dried spirulina is extremely high in a wide variety of nutrients. 100 g (or about 3.5 oz) of dried spirulina contains more than 100% of the recommended day-to-day intake of overall proteins, vitamin b1 (thiamin), vitamin b2 (riboflavin), iron, and copper. It is likewise a substantial source of vitamin e, vitamin k, vitamin b3 (niacin), folate, magnesium, potassium, and manganesim.

Keep in mind that if you are taking a few grams of spirulina as a supplement, these nutrients will probably not exist in high adequate amounts to make a real distinction in your nutrient status. (5 ).

How to include spirulina in the diet plan?

Spirulina is available in powder or tablet kind.

  • As a powder, people can:
  • Include it to smoothies, which offers the beverage a green color
  • Sprinkle spirulina powder on salads or in soups
  • Mix it into energy balls, in addition to other healthy components
  • Stir a tablespoon into tablet fruit or veggie juices

People can likewise take spirulina as a dietary supplement in form. (6 ).

Spirulina nutritions

One tablespoon of spirulina consists of:.

  • Calories: 20
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Fat: 1 gram
  • Carbohydrates: 2 grams
  • Fiber: 0 grams
  • Sugar: 0 grams

Spirulina is a great source of:.

Spirulina also consists of magnesium. This mineral supports typical day-to-day functions like muscle use and your heart beat. It’s likewise responsible for producing protein and producing energy– however many people do not get enough in their diet plan. (7 ).

Benefits of spirulina

Spirulina is among the world’s most popular supplements.

It is filled with numerous nutrients and anti-oxidants that might benefit your body and brain.

Here are 10 evidence-based health benefits of spirulina.

Spirulina is exceptionally high in lots of nutrients

Spirulina is an organism that grows in both fresh and seawater.

It is a type of cyanobacteria, which is a family of single-celled microorganisms that are frequently described as blue-green algae.

Just like plants, cyanobacteria can produce energy from sunlight through a process called photosynthesis.

Spirulina was consumed by the ancient aztecs but became popular again when nasa proposed that it could be grown in space for usage by astronauts.

A basic everyday dosage of spirulina is 1– 3 grams, but doses of up to 10 grams daily have actually been used successfully.

This tiny alga is loaded with nutrients. A single tablespoon (7 grams) of dried spirulina powder contains.

  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Vitamin b1 (thiamine): 11% of the rda
  • Vitamin b2 (riboflavin): 15% of the rda
  • Vitamin b3 (niacin): 4% of the rda
  • Copper: 21% of the rda
  • Iron: 11% of the rda

It also contains decent quantities of magnesium,.

Potassium and manganese and small amounts of practically every other nutrient that.

You need.

In addition, the very same amount holds just 20 calories and 1.7 grams of digestible carbohydrates.

Gram for gram, spirulina might be the single most nutritious food on earth.

A tablespoon (7 grams) of spirulina provides a percentage of fat– around 1 gram– consisting of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in an around 1.5– 1.0 ratio.

The quality of the protein in spirulina is considered excellent– equivalent to eggs. It offers all the important amino acids that you require.

It is typically declared that spirulina includes vitamin b12, but this is incorrect. It has pseudovitamin b12, which has not been shown to be effective in human beings.


Spirulina is a type of blue-green algae that grows in both salt and fresh water. It might be among the most nutrient-dense foods in the world.

Effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory homes

Oxidative damage can hurt your dna and cells.

This damage can drive persistent inflammation, which contributes to cancer and other diseases.

Spirulina is a fantastic source of anti-oxidants, which can secure versus oxidative damage.

Its main active part is called phycocyanin. This antioxidant substance also provides spirulina its distinct blue-green color.

Phycocyanin can battle complimentary radicals and hinder production of inflammatory signaling particles, offering remarkable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory impacts.


Phycocyanin is the primary active substance in spirulina. It has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory homes.

Can reduce “bad” ldl and triglyceride levels

Heart problem is the world’s leading cause of death.

Many threat factors are connected to an increased danger of heart disease.

As it turns out, spirulina favorably impacts many of these elements. For example, it can decrease overall cholesterol, “bad” ldl cholesterol and triglycerides, while raising “good” hdl cholesterol.

In a study in 25 people with type 2 diabetes, 2 grams of spirulina each day considerably improved these markers.

Another study in individuals with high cholesterol determined that 1 gram of spirulina per day lowered triglycerides by 16.3% and “bad” ldl by 10.1%.

A number of other studies have actually discovered favorable results– though with greater dosages of 4.5– 8 grams each day.


Research studies indicate that spirulina can decrease triglycerides and “bad” ldl cholesterol and might concurrently raise “good” hdl cholesterol.

Protects “bad” ldl cholesterol from oxidation

Fatty structures in your body are prone to oxidative damage.

This is called lipid peroxidation, a key driver of many serious illness.

For example, one of the crucial steps in the development of cardiovascular disease is the oxidation of “bad” ldl cholesterol.

Remarkably, the anti-oxidants in spirulina appear to be particularly reliable at decreasing lipid peroxidation in both human beings and animals.

In a research study in 37 people with type 2 diabetes, 8 grams of spirulina each day considerably lowered markers of oxidative damage. It also increased levels of antioxidant enzymes in the blood.


Fatty structures in your body can become oxidized, driving the progression of numerous illness. The antioxidants in spirulina can help avoid this.

May have anti-cancer properties

Some proof suggests that spirulina has anti-cancer residential or commercial properties.

Research in animals suggests that it can lower cancer incident and growth size.

Spirulina’s impacts on oral cancer– or cancer of the mouth– have actually been especially well studied.

One study examined 87 people from india with precancerous lesions– called oral submucous fibrosis (osmf)– in the mouth.

Among those who took 1 gram of spirulina each day for one year, 45% saw their sores disappear– compared to only 7% in the control group.

When these individuals stopped taking spirulina, nearly half of them redeveloped sores in the list below year.

In another research study of 40 people with osmf lesions, 1 gram of spirulina per day resulted in higher improvement in osmf signs than the drug pentoxyfilline.


Spirulina may have anti-cancer homes and appears especially reliable against a type of precancerous lesion of the mouth called osmf.

May minimize high blood pressure

High blood pressure is a main chauffeur of numerous serious illness, consisting of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease.

While 1 gram of spirulina is ineffective, a dose of 4.5 grams daily has actually been shown to reduce blood pressure in individuals with regular levels.

This decrease is thought to be driven by an increased production of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that assists your capillary unwind and dilate.


A higher dosage of spirulina may cause lower blood pressure levels, a major risk element for lots of illness.

Improves symptoms of allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is characterized by swelling in your nasal passages.

It is set off by environmental allergens, such as pollen, animal hair and even wheat dust.

Spirulina is a popular option treatment for signs of hay fever, and there is proof that it can be reliable.

In one study in 127 people with allergic rhinitis, 2 grams daily drastically reduced symptoms like nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal blockage and itching.


Spirulina supplements are really reliable versus hay fever, reducing numerous signs.

May work versus anemia

There are many different kinds of anemia.

The most typical one is identified by a reduction in hemoglobin or red cell in your blood.

Anemia is fairly typical in older adults, causing prolonged sensations of weakness and tiredness.

In a study in 40 older individuals with a history of anemia, spirulina supplements increased the hemoglobin material of red cell and better immune function.

Bear in mind that this is simply one study. More research is required prior to any recommendations can be made.


One study recommends that spirulina can minimize anemia in older grownups, though more research is required.

May enhance muscle strength and endurance

Exercise-induced oxidative damage is a major contributor to muscle tiredness.

Particular plant foods have antioxidant residential or commercial properties that can assist athletes and physically active people lessen this damage.

Spirulina appears advantageous, as some research studies indicated improved muscle strength and endurance.in 2 research studies, spirulina enhanced endurance, considerably increasing the time it took for people to end up being tired.


Spirulina might supply numerous workout benefits, including boosted endurance and increased muscle strength.

May aid blood sugar level control

Animal studies connect spirulina to significantly lower blood sugar levels.

In some cases, it has surpassed popular diabetes drugs, consisting of metformin.

There is likewise some proof that spirulina can be effective in humans.

In a two-month study in 25 individuals with type 2 diabetes, 2 grams of spirulina each day resulted in an excellent reduction in blood glucose levels.

Hba1c, a marker for long-term blood sugar level levels, reduced from 9% to 8%, which is significant. Studies approximate that a 1% decrease in this marker can lower the risk of diabetes-related death by 21%.

However, this study was small and brief in duration. More studies are essential.


Some proof suggests that spirulina might benefit individuals with type 2 diabetes, significantly reducing fasting blood sugar level levels. (8 ).

Benefits of spirulina for ladies

Minimizes hormonal imbalances

Spirulina is grown in saline waters, so is abundant in natural iodine. Iodine helps in the proper release of hormonal agents & decreases state of mind swings, anxiety, tiredness, & sudden weight gain.

Helps manage pms

Spirulina has cleansing properties, therefore, spirulina intake helps female reproductive organs to eliminate toxic substances throughout pms. Spirulina also assists to handle cramps during pms.

Great during menopause

Hot flashes and state of mind swings are common during menopause phases. As spirulina is a soothing and soothing agent, it helps in having a calmer yet energetic day.

Good for hair & nail growth

Zinc in spirulina assists in having more powerful nails and iron in spirulina assists fight anemia, typical in ladies at 20’s. Vit-b12 and vit-e help promote hair and nail growth. The gla (gamma linolenic acid) in spirulina assists to have elasticity in skin and hair without having dry skin.

Anti– aging in nature

Spirulina is rich in anti-oxidants that help cleanse contaminants in the body and helps keep the glow of skin. It is likewise rich in vitamin-e which helps reducing hair fall and assists enhance hair and nail growth. Gla in spirulina has collagen which helps in keeping skin tight i.e; it helps in reducing dark circles and wrinkles.

Because of these above reasons, spirulina is the very best health supplement for all women out there. (9 ).


The dose of spirulina used in studies analyzing its results differ considerably. In general, 1-8 g daily of spirulina has been shown to have some result. The specific dosages depend on the condition its being utilized for:.

  • For cholesterol, dosages in the series of 1-8 g daily might be impactful
  • For muscle efficiency, doses of 2-7.5 g daily have actually been utilized
  • For blood glucose control, extremely mild effects have been seen with 2 g daily
  • High blood pressure might be affected at dosages of 3.5-4.5 g daily
  • Impacts for fatty liver have been seen at dosages of 4.5 g each day

Spirulina is about 20% c-phycocyanin by weight, and about 1% phycocyanobilin by weight. The dose called of 200mg/kg c-phycocyanin (1g/kg spirulina) transformed to human comparable dosages from rats is roughly:.

  • 0g for a 150lb individual
  • 5g for a 200lb person
  • 2g for a 250lb individual

Additional research is needed to identify whether spirulina should be taken once a day, or in smaller dosages, several times each day.

It is not advised to go beyond the greatest dose discussed above, as no clear benefits have actually been noted beyond that level. (11 ).

Negative effects of spirulina

An allergic reaction might be possible in those allergic to spirulina.allergic reactions would consist of rash or swelling. Right away stop utilizing spirulina if you begin to experience adverse effects and call your doctor.

Typical adverse effects

Spirulina is normally safe, however some individuals have reported the following with its use:1.

  • Allergic reaction
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Sweating
  • Difficulty sleeping

Serious side effects

While severe negative effects from spirulina are rare, understand that the following have actually taken place:1.

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Throat swelling

Instantly stop using spirulina if you start to experience extreme negative effects and call your healthcare provider. (10 ).

What are the safety measures when taking this item?

Always check with your physician prior to you utilize a natural product. Some items might not mix well with other drugs or natural items.

This item may disrupt some laboratory tests. Make sure to talk with your physician about this and all drugs you are taking.

Do not utilize this product if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant soon. Use birth control you can trust while taking this product.

Take extra care if you are at a high threat for infection. This consists of individuals who have actually had a transplant, are on chemo, or have an autoimmune illness.

Take additional care if you are taking drugs to thin your blood. These are drugs like warfarin (coumadin), heparin, and other anticoagulants.

Take extra care and contact your doctor if you have:.

  • Liver problems
  • Bleeding conditions
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Autoimmune diseases such as several sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and pemphigus vulgaris

What should I look for?

  • Upset stomach
  • Increased gas
  • Swelling
  • Exhaustion
  • Headache
  • Feeling woozy

When do I require to call the medical professional?

Signs of a really bad response. These include wheezing; tightness in the chest; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat. Go to the er immediately.

Signs of liver problems. These include upset stomach or throwing up, stubborn belly discomfort, feeling exhausted, dark urine, yellow skin or eyes, not starving.

  • Very bad throwing up
  • Really bad stomach discomfort
  • Extremely bad loose stools (12 )


The favorable results of spirulina in hay fever are based on adequate evidence but bigger trials are required. It is thought that the anticancer results of spirulina are perhaps originated from β-carotene, a known antioxidant; however, the link between β-carotene level and carcinogenesis can not be developed as the etiology of carcinoma is often multifactorial. There are some favorable research studies on the cholesterol-lowering results of spirulina however larger studies are needed prior to any definitive conclusions can be made. Finally, there are no high-level proof trials on the function played by spirulina in chronic tiredness and in antiviral applications. At the moment, what the literature suggests is that spirulina is a safe food supplement without substantial side-effects however its function as a drug remains to be seen. (13 ).


  1. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/spirulina_( dietary_supplement)
  2. Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3247528/
  3. Https://www.spirulinafarm.it/en/pages/storia-della-spirulina
  4. Https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/spirulina
  5. Https://supplements.selfdecode.com/a/spirulina/#how_does_spirulina_work
  6. Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324027#diet
  7. Https://www.webmd.com/diet/spirulina-health-benefits#091e9c5e8200c065-2-6
  8. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/10-proven-benefits-of-spirulina#toc_title_hdr_12
  9. Https://globalspira.com/women-benefits/
  10. Https://www.verywellhealth.com/spirulina-89079
  11. Https://examine.com/supplements/spirulina/
  12. Https://www.drugs.com/npc/spirulina.html
  13. Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3136577/
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