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Pectin is a fiber found in fruits. It is frequently used as a thickener in cooking and baking. It is also in some cases utilized to make medication.

People utilize pectin for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, heartburn, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support these usages.

Pectin was used for years in mix with kaolin (kaopectate) to manage diarrhea. However, in april 2003, the fda discovered that clinical proof does not support making use of pectin for diarrhea. Given that april 2004, pectin has not been allowed as an anti-diarrhea agent in over-the-counter (otc) products. As a result, kaopectate no longer includes pectin and kaolin. [2]


Pectin was first separated and described in 1825 by henri braconnot, though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was understood long before. To acquire well set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were blended into the dish.

During industrialization, the makers of fruit protects quickly turned to producers of apple juice to get dried apple pomace that was then prepared to draw out pectin.

Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built that commercially drawn out pectin from dried apple pomace and later on citrus-peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the usa and in europe.

At first pectin was offered as a liquid extract, but nowadays pectin is frequently utilized as dried powder that is simpler to save and deal with than a liquid.


Naturally, pectin in the form of complex, insoluble protopectin becomes part of the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants. In the middle lamella between plant cells, pectin helps to bind cells together and controls water in the plant.

The amount and structure of the pectin differs in between plants and likewise within a plant with time and in different parts of a plant. Difficult parts contain more pectin than soft parts of a plant. During ripening, pectin is broken down; in this process the fruit gets softer as the cell walls break down.

Pectin is a natural part of human nutrition. The daily consumption of pectin from fruit and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g (presuming consumption of approximately 500 g fruit and vegetable daily).

In human food digestion, pectin is not utilized as nutrient, however passes through the small intestine basically intact. In the big intestinal tract and colon, bacteria break down pectin and free short-chain fatty acids that have favorable impact on health (prebiotic effect). Pectin is hence a soluble dietary fiber.

Usage of pectin has been shown to minimize blood cholesterol levels. The mechanism seems a boost of viscosity in the digestive tract, leading to a minimized absorption of cholesterol from bile or food. [3]

Mechanism of action

Pectin is an adsorbent that binds to bacteria, toxic substances and other irritants in the intestinal mucosa. Pectin is able to reduce the ph in the digestive lumen and provides a soothing effect on the inflamed mucosa.


Pectin is not absorbed and it is not distributed in the body. [4]


Pectin offers little nutrition.

One fluid ounce (29 grams) of liquid pectin includes:.

  • Calories: 3
  • Protein: 0 grams
  • Fat: 0 grams
  • Carbs: 1 gram
  • Fiber: 1 gram

Powdered pectin has a similar nutrient material.

Neither the liquid nor powdered kind consist of substantial quantities of vitamins or minerals, and all of its carbohydrates and calories come from fiber.

That stated, some products called pectin dry blends contain sugarcoated and calories. These mixes can likewise be utilized to make jams and jellies. [5]


The primary use for pectin is as a gelling representative, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. The classical application is providing the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. Pectin also minimizes syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low-calorie jams. For household usage, pectin is a component in gelling sugar (likewise called “jam sugar”) where it is watered down to the ideal concentration with sugar and some citric acid to change ph. In some countries, pectin is likewise available as a solution or an extract, or as a combined powder, for home jam making.

For standard jams and marmalades that contain above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids, high-ester pectins are utilized. With low-ester pectins and amidated pectins, less sugar is required, so that diet products can be made. Water extract of aiyu seeds is typically used in taiwan to make aiyu jelly, where the extract gels without heating due to low-ester pectins from the seeds and the bivalent cations from the water.

Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to offer an excellent gel structure, a tidy bite and to confer a great flavour release. Pectin can also be utilized to stabilise acidic protein drinks, such as drinking yogurt, to enhance the mouth-feel and the pulp stability in juice based drinks and as a fat replacement in baked products. Typical levels of pectin used as a food additive are between 0.5 and 1.0%– this has to do with the same quantity of pectin as in fresh fruit.

In medication, pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used versus constipation and diarrhea. Until 2002, it was among the main ingredients used in kaopectate a medication to combat diarrhea, in addition to kaolinite. It has actually been utilized in gentle heavy metal elimination from biological systems. Pectin is also used in throat lozenges as a demulcent.

In cosmetic products, pectin serves as a stabiliser. Pectin is also used in injury healing preparations and speciality medical adhesives, such as colostomy gadgets.

Sriamornsak exposed that pectin could be utilized in numerous oral drug shipment platforms, e.g., controlled release systems, gastro-retentive systems, colon-specific shipment systems and mucoadhesive delivery systems, according to its intoxicity and low cost. It was discovered that pectin from different sources provides different gelling capabilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical composition. Like other natural polymers, a significant issue with pectin is disparity in reproducibility in between samples, which might result in bad reproducibility in drug shipment attributes.

In ruminant nutrition, depending upon the level of lignification of the cell wall, pectin depends on 90% absorbable by bacterial enzymes. Ruminant nutritionists recommend that the digestibility and energy concentration in forages be enhanced by increasing pectin concentration in the forage.

In cigars, pectin is considered an exceptional substitute for veggie glue and many cigar cigarette smokers and collectors use pectin for fixing damaged tobacco leaves on their cigars.

Yablokov et al., writing in chernobyl: consequences of the catastrophe for individuals and the environment, quote research carried out by the ukrainian center of radiation medicine and the belarusian institute of radiation medication and endocrinology, concluded, concerning pectin’s radioprotective effects, that “adding pectin preparations to the food of inhabitants of the chernobyl-contaminated areas promotes a reliable excretion of bundled radionuclides” such as cesium-137. The authors reported on the favorable results of using pectin food additive preparations in a variety of scientific studies carried out on kids in seriously polluted areas, with as much as 50% enhancement over control groups.

Throughout the 2nd world war, allied pilots were supplied with maps printed on silk, for navigation in escape and evasion efforts. The printing process at first proved nearly difficult since the several layers of ink instantly ran, blurring outlines and rendering place names illegible until the developer of the maps, clayton hutton, blended a little pectin with the ink and at once the pectin coagulated the ink and prevented it from running, enabling little topographic features to be plainly noticeable. [6]

Distinction in between pectin and gelatin

Where pectin is a plant-based thickener and food additive, according to medlineplus, gelatin is an animal-based product. Gelatin is made of collagen from cartilage and bone. Pectin can normally be replacemented for gelatin in recipes that you want to make vegetarian or vegan, however gelatin is more versatile and can be utilized in a wider variety of foods.

Gelatin is utilized as a supplement to reduce weight, reinforce bones, joints and fingernails, to reduce recovery after workout or sports injury and to enhance hair quality. At this moment in time, nevertheless, there is insufficient proof to support that it is an effective alternative for any of these usages.

While pectin may have a variety of healthy qualities, more research study is required to figure out how or if taking it in supplement type will provide any advantage. There is some speculation that drinking a mix of pectin and grape juice will assist treat arthritis pain, but according to the arthritis foundation, there is no evidence to support this claim. [7]

Exist various kinds of pectin?

There are 2 primary kinds of pectin on the market: apple pectin and customized citrus pectin (mcp). Both are derived from the pulp of the source fruit.

Apple pectin

Apple pectin is minimally processed and has greater gel-forming properties.

Modified-citrus pectin

Modified-citrus pectin (mcp), likewise called fractionated pectin, has been processed to include much shorter chains of polysaccharides that liquify more readily in water and are much better absorbed and utilized by the body than common, long-chain apple pectin.

The special advantages of modified-citrus pectin focus on its absorbable compounds being able to bind to lectins on unusual cells referred to as galactins. This binding prevents these irregular cells from clumping together, circulating in the blood, and infecting other body tissues.

Mcp exerts a number of other advantages due to its absorbable substances. Most especially, they produce significant activation of white blood cells called cytotoxic t cells and natural killer cells in addition to apply a modulating effect on immune function. [8]

Source of pectin

Citrus fruit

The fruits containing the most pectin are citrus fruits, specifically grapefruits, lemons and oranges. The majority of the pectin resides in the citrus peel, however the pulp also contains some. You ‘d require to consume a equivalent of 6 grapefruits to get a considerable quantity of pectin– however, you can easily get more from each grapefruit by using the peel by means of enthusiasm. Usage citrus enthusiasm to include taste to homemade salad dressings and marinades, or add it to plain yogurt of cottage cheese.


Apples are likewise an exceptional source of pectin. In practical terms, apples are frequently a much better source than citrus fruit since many people eat the apple skins, which is where a substantial percentage of the pectin resides. On the other hand, the huge majority of people get rid of and dispose of the pectin-rich peel from citrus fruit. The quantity of pectin in apple pulp varies commonly, from 0.14 to 1.15 percent of weight. Range, growing conditions and ripeness impact pectin content.

Other good fruit sources

A variety of other fruits are very good sources of pectin– presuming you eat them with their skin– and these consist of all berries, peaches, apricots, cherries and grapes. Berries especially significant for their pectin content include strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and dewberries. Bananas are also a good source, particularly if you don’t let them get too ripe or soft prior to consuming them. [9]


High source of fiber

Pectin fiber is more than just a regulator– it’s a benefit-rich fiber that’s water-soluble and helps lower cholesterol and increases digestion health.

As a soluble fiber, it works by binding to fatty substances in the digestion system, consisting of cholesterol and toxic substances, and promotes their elimination. This implies that pectin benefits the body’s detoxifying capabilities, helps regulate the body’s use of sugars and cholesterol, and enhances gut and digestion health.

A 2014 research study released in the journal of farming and food chemistry discovered that pectin minimized the degree of lipid food digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with particular gastrointestinal components.

Lipid digestion is when large fat droplets are broken down into smaller beads. This makes it easier for the fat-digesting enzyme, called pancreatic lipase, to digest.

This helps your body break down fats into fatty acids.

A 1994 research study released in the journal of nutrition found that rats that were fed diet plans including pectin had lower ldl and liver cholesterol concentrations than the control group after a 28-day pectin-supplemented diet plan.

Reduces cholesterol

Pectin is a water-soluble fiber that can bind cholesterol in the gut, consequently preventing its absorption into the bloodstream. Research suggests that the appropriate dosage for high cholesterol is 15 grams of pectin each day.

Pectin can be consumed straight from high-fiber foods like fruits, veggies and seeds. Plus, these healthy foods are known to lower cholesterol because of their total fiber material.

A 1998 study published in the journal of physiology and biochemistry suggests that pectin intake leads to a reduction of cholesterol levels in liver and serum in addition to a boost in waste matter. The study involved normal rats that were fed a diet containing 2.5 percent or 5 percent apple or orange pectin, or no pectin, which was the control group, for 3 weeks.

Cholesterol concentrations were identified in waste (stool) after one, 2 and three weeks of treatment and in liver and serum at the end of the speculative trials. Cholesterol concentration in waste matter revealed a significant boost by week 3 in rats fed 5 percent orange or apple pectin.

Hepatic cholesterol concentration decreased substantially in all pectin-fed groups.

Another research study conducted at the university of florida college of medicine found that a grapefruit pectin-supplemented diet, without modification in lifestyle, can substantially reduce plasma cholesterol. The research study lasted for 16 weeks, and it included 27 human volunteers who were evaluated to be at medium to high danger for coronary heart problem due to hypercholesterolemia.

The research study did not interfere with the individuals’ existing diets or way of lives. Grapefruit pectin supplements decreased plasma cholesterol by 7.6 percent and ldl cholesterol by 10.8 percent.

Controls diarrhea

Pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool. For that reason, it’s frequently utilized for natural relief of irregularity and diarrhea.

A 2001 study carried out at the centre for health and population research study in bangladesh examined the beneficial digestive tract results of dietary fibers from green banana or pectin in children with consistent diarrhea.

In the research study, 62 kids, age 5– 12 months, were randomly given a rice-based diet plan containing either cooked green banana, pectin or the rice diet alone. After 7 days, stool weight and consistency, frequency of vomiting and purging, and duration of disease were measured.

By day three post-treatment, substantially more children recovered from diarrhea getting pectin or bananas than controls, and by day 4, these proportions continued to increase.

The results suggest that green banana and pectin significantly minimize quantities of stool, oral rehydration service, intravenous fluid, frequency of throwing up and diarrheal duration– and that pectin is an essential step to require to stop diarrhea.

Fights diabetes

Pectin is understood to slow down the activity of enzymes that break down starches and sugar.

The absorption of carbs and sugars is decreased because of the fiber content. This helps avoid blood sugar spikes, which cause glucose intolerance, weight gain and diabetes.

A 1988 research study released in the american journal of medical nutrition examined the impacts of pectin consumption on 12 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic clients. The individuals were checked for their gastric emptying, glucose tolerance and hormone actions after being placed on a 2,400-calorie, low-fiber diet plan for 2 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of an added supplement with 20 grams of apple pectin.

The outcomes recommend that continual pectin intake slows the gastric-emptying rate and enhances glucose tolerance, making it a practical natural aid for diabetes signs.

Aids weight-loss

Pectin is a water-soluble complex carb that works as a fat-burning food. Because the consistency is gum-like or gel-like, when you eat fresh fruits or veggies with pectin, the cells absorb it instead of the fat.

It likewise assists you feel full longer. That satiated sensation means you’ll chow down less throughout the day.

A 2014 research study carried out at wageningen university in the netherlands assessed the results of pectin supplements on 29 individuals. The outcomes suggest that gelled pectin, in particular, had the ability to lower appetite, increase energy and lower insulin reactions.

A 1997 study released in the journal of the american college of nutrition tested the hypothesis that pectin increases satiety for 49 male and 25 female u.s. Army employees within normal weight limits. On the first days and two of the research study, the participants fasted over night and were then given orange juice followed by ice cream four hours later on.

Satiety was determined on a visual analog scale before and after orange juice and after that once again after ice cream.

When orange pectin was added to the orange juice, the individuals felt more pleased for as much as 4 hours. They likewise reported feeling more satisfied for up to 60 minutes after a meal with ice cream.

This recommends that pectin, in dosages as small as five grams blended with orange juice, increases satiety and can assist in a program to lose weight fast by limiting food consumption.

Promotes detoxing

Research study reveals that taking in pectin promotes the detoxing of heavy metals and other contaminants that add to persistent illness and hinder the body’s capability to recover from health problem.

Due to the fact that the structure of pectin has a gelling mechanism, it has the ability to bind to heavy metals (consisting of lead and mercury) as it moves through the gi tract and eliminate them from the body through stool. [10]

Other benefits

Skin health: although there is little evidence to support these usages, some individuals prefer to apply apple pectin powder to their skin to alleviate swelling.

State of mind stabilizer: in the body, apple pectin changes into butyrate. It has been widely developed that butyrate can stabilize mood. People who lack brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) experience depression and insomnia. Butyrate can motivate the brain to launch bdnf, which further decreases tension, depression, and stress and anxiety.

Vomiting: in a clinical experiment including 62 boys with diarrhea, a diet consisting primarily of rice and pectin (4 g/kg for one week) reduced throwing up. Another scientific trial had 18 children with spastic paralysis who were given either a diet plan high in pectin (enteral liquid 2:1 v/v) or low in pectin (enteral liquid 3:1 v/v). The high-pectin diet reduced throwing up after four weeks. Once again, the findings are motivating however inadequate to support this pectin health benefit. Additional scientific trials are needed.

Aching throat: soluble fiber, like that discovered in apple pectin, can produce a barrier and coating in the throat, lowering swelling and eliminating discomfort.

Cancer: an investigation group from the institute of food research in norwich, england, found that a component of pectin links to the tumor-causing protein called galectin 3.

Galectin 3 is a crucial component in the spread of cancer due to the fact that it makes it possible for cancer cells to separate from tumors and reassociate in other places.

However, galectin 3 activity is obstructed by pectin, which might stop the spread of cancer within the body.

Research studies have reported that apple pectin assists individuals combat cancer in other methods. A research group at the university of georgia discovered that pectin could kill up to 40 percent of prostate cancer cells when exposed to them.

Pectin has actually been shown in other research studies to be efficient in the treatment of colon and lung cancer.

According to a number of research studies, pectin may assist avoid breast cancer, albeit these studies are still in their early stages. [11]

How to make your own apple pectin?

Start to complete: 24 hr (60 minutes active cooking).

Yields: 1 1/2 cups.


  • 7 large, tart apples
  • 4 cups water
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice


  1. Wash the apples, but do not peel them.
  2. Cut apples into quarters, core consisted of.
  3. Put apples in a large pot, add water and lemon juice. Bring mixture to boil.
  4. Let boil for 40 minutes, stirring at the midway mark.
  5. Strain the mixture through cheesecloth. Let the mixture pressure over night to get the most pectin.
  6. Boil the pectin and cook up until decreased by half– about 20 minutes.
  7. Refrigerate to use within 4 days, or store in the freezer for up to six months.
  8. Two jars of jam sitting beside pears [12]

How to make pectin powder?

Making the pectin mash

  1. Cut the apples into 1-inch-size pieces utilizing the chef’s knife and cutting board. Leave the skin on and the cores intact. Any kind of apple can be utilized, but unripe apples have a higher pectin content.
  2. Place the cut apples, consisting of the cores, into the large pot and fill with water up until the apple pieces are just covered. Excessive water will indicate more work when it concerns lowering the liquid and making pectin powder.
  3. Cover the pot with a lid and bring the water and apples to a rolling boil. Let it boil for 2 minutes before turning down the heat, cooking for 30 to 40 minutes up until the apples have softened, collapsed and appear like they will dissolve. Do not mash the apples.

Strain the liquid

  1. Line the colander with a single layer of cheesecloth. Place the colander on top of a big blending bowl, so that the manages rest on the edge of the bowl, leaving a number of inches of area between the bottom of the colander and the bowl.
  2. Ladle the apple mixture into the colander, onto the cheesecloth. Cover the apple mix with the lid, and let the liquid seep out of the apple mixture. You might need to let it sit overnight. Do not press down onto the apple mixture, as this will produce cloudy pectin, since small pieces of apple break off into the liquid.
  3. Pour the stretched liquid in the mixing bowl into the pot and bring the liquid to a rolling boil. Boil until the liquid has actually minimized by half. Not decreasing it enough means your completed pectin will take longer to turn into a powder.
  4. Check the quantity of pectin in your liquid by stirring 1 teaspoon of juice into 1 tablespoon of rubbing alcohol. Liquid high in pectin will form a strong gel that can be lifted out with a fork. Do not eat this test pectin. If the gel can not be raised out as a solid, you need to further lower your pectin liquid.

Make the powder

  1. Cool down the pectin liquid– it may gel slightly as it does so. You ought to have approximately 4 1/2 to 5 cups of liquid.
  2. Stir the cooled pectin liquid in with the tapioca maltodextrin powder, whisking in a circular instructions up until your pectin turns into a fine powder. The pectin will end up being really stiff before the clumps break up into the great powder.
  3. Shop the powder in airtight plastic containers. Approximately 2 1/2 tablespoons of homemade powdered pectin is equal to 1 package of business pectin.


Tapioca maltodextrin can be bought at specialized supermarket or can be ordered from dining establishment supply shops.

Pectin, home or commercially made, helps jams and jellies set just when there is the right balance of sugar, acid and pectin. Pectin alone will not trigger jelling, and insufficient sugar can still leave you with a syrup rather than a gel. [13]

Adverse effects of pectin

Pectin is a kind of fiber that is typically added to foods in order to improve absorption and include fiber to your diet. Pectin may also be taken as a nutritional supplement that is made mostly from apple fiber. Pectin is likewise used as a thickening agent for many kinds of jams and jellies, and it can be drawn out from many kinds of citrus fruits. Excess ingestion of fiber products, including pectin, might have negative effects, consisting of bloating, diarrhea, decrease in cravings, and mineral exhaustion.


Pectin may cause bloating and gas in your digestive system, which might result in discomfort and abdominal discomfort. The fiber in pectin does not get absorbed and taken in because of the natural absence of the required enzymes that break down fiber in your small intestine. The build up of fiber in your little and big intestines can create hydrogen and co2 gases. These gases can lead to the bloating and abdominal discomfort you feel when you require to pass gas.

Pectin might trigger bloating and gas in your digestive tract, which might cause discomfort and abdominal pain.

The develop of fiber in your little and large intestines can develop hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases.


As a fiber supplement, pectin functions as a cleaner for your intestinal tract, which may trigger diarrhea in some people, especially if your pectin intake is high. With big amounts of fiber in your diet, some nutrients may not get absorbed by your digestive system. The malabsorption of nutrients in your intestines may result in diarrhea. “the encyclopedia of nutritional supplements” states that taking in adequate amounts of water when taking a fiber supplement, like pectin, may reduce the risk of establishing diarrhea.

As a fiber supplement, pectin acts as a cleaner for your intestinal tract, which may cause diarrhea in some people, particularly if your pectin consumption is high.

Decrease in cravings

The fiber contained in pectin can be extremely thick and broaden inside your stomach. When fiber broadens, it puts light pressure on the walls of your stomach, which set off receptors along your gastrointestinal system to signal your brain that you are complete. As a result, pectin and other fiber supplements can trigger a reduction in appetite and might result in unexpected weight reduction.

Mineral depletion

As the fiber from pectin moves through your digestion system, it might obstruct the absorption of specific vital minerals into your blood stream. The uptake of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc may be decreased due to the fact that they might become trapped among the fiber particles in your digestive system and, as a result, can not pass through the walls of your intestine and into the blood. In order to make sure appropriate absorption of minerals, take pectin and mineral vitamins independently. [14]


Prescription antibiotics (tetracycline prescription antibiotics) interaction score:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Pectin might decrease the quantity of tetracycline prescription antibiotics that can be taken in and used by the body. Taking pectin with tetracycline antibiotics may reduce the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take pectin 2 hours prior to or four hours after taking tetracycline antibiotics.

Some tetracycline prescription antibiotics include demeclocycline (declomycin), minocycline (minocin), and tetracycline (achromycin).

Digoxin (lanoxin) interaction ranking:

Moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can decrease the amount of digoxin (lanoxin) that the body takes in and uses. This can decrease the drug’s effectiveness. Take pectin 4 hours before or one hour after digoxin (lanoxin) to prevent this interaction.

Lovastatin (mevacor) interaction score:

Moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can reduce the quantity of lovastatin (mevacor) that the body takes in and uses. This can decrease the drug’s efficiency. Take pectin at least one hour after lovastatin (mevacor) to prevent this interaction.

Medications taken by mouth (oral drugs) interaction rating:

Moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Pectin is high in fiber. Fiber can stick to some medications in the stomach and intestines. Taking pectin at the same time as medications that you take by mouth might reduce just how much medication your body takes in. This can reduce how well these drugs work. Take pectin at least one hour after medications you take by mouth to prevent this interaction. [15]

What are the precautions when taking Pectin?

Constantly check with your physician prior to you use a natural product. Some items may not blend well with drugs or other natural products.

This item might hinder some lab tests. Make sure to talk with your doctor about this and all drugs you are taking.

Make certain to inform your physician if you are pregnant, intend on getting pregnant, or are breastfeeding. You will need to speak about the advantages and threats of using this natural item.

Take extra care if you are taking particular drugs that lower your cholesterol called “statins”, such as simvastatin (zocor), pravastatin (pravachol), or atorvastatin (lipitor).

Take additional care if you dislike cashews or pistachios.

Take additional care and check with your doctor if you have:.

  • Irregularity
  • Heart problems
  • Asthma [16]


  • Pectin is a soluble fiber with an effective gelling ability.
  • It’s typically used to thicken and support jams and jellies.
  • Although it has lots of possible health advantages, more research in humans is required to much better understand how it affects health.
  • Consuming a range of fruits and vegetables is a terrific method to boost your pectin consumption. [17]


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