Maritime Pine

30 mins read

Maritime pine trees (pinus pinaster) grow in countries on the mediterranean sea. Its bark may be practical for asthma and improved leg flow.

Maritime pine contains chemicals that may enhance blood circulation, stimulate the immune system, reduce swelling, avoid infections, and have antioxidant results. Maritime evergreen that grow in southwest france are used to make pycnogenol, the trademarked name for a specific maritime pine bark extract.

Maritime pine bark extract is utilized for asthma, high cholesterol, decrease in memory, adhd, and lots of other conditions, however there is no good scientific proof to support a number of these usages. (2 ).


Pinus pinaster is a popular subject in ecology because of its bothersome growth and spread in south africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the area at the end of the 17th century (1685– 1693). It was found spreading in the cape peninsula by 1772. towards the end of the 18th century (1780 ), p. Pinaster was widely planted, and at the start of the 19th century (1825– 1830), p. Pinaster was planted commercially as a timber resource and for the forestry industry. The pine tree types attacks big areas and more particularly fynbos plants. Fynbos plant life is a fire-prone shrubland greenery that is found in the southern and southwest cape of south africa. It is found in greater abundance near water courses. Dispersal, habitat loss, and fecundity are all factors that affect spread rate. The species prefers acidic soils with medium to high-density plants, however it can also grow in fundamental soils and even in sandy and poor soils, where only couple of commercial species can grow. (3 ).


Maritime pine is an evergreen, coniferous types of tree that grows to mature heights of 100 feet (30 m), with a typically rather sinuous stem (straight in some locations, notably corsica and northwestern africa) and an usually open crown of routine, candelabra-like upswept branches, broadly ovoid-conic when young, ending up being irregular and denser with age.

  • Bark is really thick, flaky or plated, fissured, patterned red-brown, blackish and enthusiast.
  • Branching is primarily uninodal, however periodically multinodal on vigorous young trees.
  • Shoots are rough and stout, measuring 0.28 to 0.6 inch (7 – 15 mm) thick, colored buff to yellow-brown.
  • Foliar buds are large, cylindric to ovoid-acute, with red-brown scales having long free, revolute tips, fringed with white hairs.
  • Adult leaves are kept for 1.5 to 3 years, determining 4.8 to 10 inches (12 – 25 cm) long, borne in fascicles of 2 (often 3), with a consistent 0.8 inch (2 cm) sheath. They are green to yellow-green in color, often tinged glaucous, spreading out, extremely stout, about 0.08 to 0.088 inch (2 – 2.2 mm) thick, with serrulate margins, and fine lines of stomata on all faces.
  • Juvenile leaves are highly glaucous, measuring 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 – 6 cm) long, on slender 0.12 inch (3 mm) shoots, growing for the first 2 to 5 years of the tree’s life.
  • Seed cones are somewhat deflexed on short stout stalks, symmetrical, difficult, heavy, and ovoid-conic fit, each measuring 3.6 to 7.2 inches (9 – 18 cm) long, by 1.6 to 2.4 inches (4 – 6 cm) broad when closed, ripening rich glossy chestnut-brown in april two years after pollination, and opening the exact same summertime or approximately 10 years later, to 2.8 to 4.4 inches (7 – 11 cm) broad.
  • Seed scales are stout, thick, woody, and stiff; the apophysis is 0.4 to 0.64 inch (10 – 16 mm) long by 0.72 to 1.04 inches (18 – 26 mm) broad, with a rhomboid summary, and a strong raised transverse ridge; the stout umbo is dorsal, colored blackish gray, and steps 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4 – 7 mm) broad and 0.12 inch (3 mm) high.
  • Seeds are shiny blackish brown above, matte-gray listed below. Each procedures 0.28 to 0.44 inch (7 – 11 mm) by 0.2 inch (5 mm) with an 0.72 to 1 inch (18 – 25 mm) by 0.4 inch (10 mm) wing, that is enthusiast in color with numerous straight dark brown streaks; it is quickly eliminated from the seed. (4 )

Ecological requirements

  1. Pinaster endures various environment conditions depending upon the subspecies. In general, it happens naturally in warm temperate areas including the mediterranean area, with an oceanic influence on climate, mainly in humid and sub-humid locations, where annual rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to survive in locations with only 400 mm yearly rainfall, supplying that there is sufficient climatic moisture. In particular, the southern provenances (p. Pinaster subsp. Pinaster) might grow well in semi-arid conditions. Nevertheless, it will grow best in locations with a mean yearly rainfall of 850 mm, with at least 75 mm in the period in between might and september. In its native range it just stands up to a maximum of 100 successive days without rainfall, but when utilized in plantations in some locations it can tolerate an optimum of 150 days of dry spell. Maritime pine can not tolerate shade, and grows finest at low and medium altitudes.
  2. Pinaster may be found in both flat and mountainous websites in its native variety, however typically at low to moderate altitudes. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high altitude than the subspecies pinaster. It seems to choose siliceous soils with a coarse texture, particularly sandy soils, however it can endure other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can tolerate some calcareous soils, specifically when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. Atlantica, however, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and exhibits a clear preference for sandy silicate soils, and has played an important function in the afforestation of loose dune along the western coast of the iberian peninsula specifically in northern and central portugal. It has adapted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in major nutrients and organic matter. Afforestation of these locations was carried out during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s, and played a significant function in dune combination and soil enhancement. Likewise, the landes area of southwestern france, with sandy soils, has been thoroughly planted with p. Pinaster. In south africa, a research study of four intrusive pines discovered that soil ph was the most crucial predictor for the distribution of separated trees, whereas the establishment of thick pine stands was mostly identified by fire history. (5 )


Maritime pine (pinus pinaster) is a fast-growing, medium-sized coniferous tree native to the western mediterranean sea. It has been cultivated and is now naturally discovered in other parts of central and southern europe and in north africa.

The wood is utilized for buildings, furnishings and poles, while its resin is tapped to make rosin and turpentine. Other usages include stabilisation of dunes and slopes, as shelterbelts near coastal areas and for production of plant nursery substrates.

The light-demanding tree includes a number of various subspecies with high genetic diversity and is discovered in a wide eco-friendly range. Initially, the tree grew in warm and humid areas however, as a result of many years of cultivation and adjustment outside its natural variety, it is now able to tolerate numerous conditions, consisting of frost, summer dry spell and calcareous and bad soils. It grows in elevations between water level and 2000 m in pure or combined stands. Maritime pine is considered invasive in the southern hemisphere. (6 ).

What is french maritime pine bark extract?

A dietary supplement including an extract acquired from the french maritime pine bark pinus pinaster, with prospective immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The french maritime pine bark extract consists of high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are able to scavenge free radicals, and for that reason might inhibit cellular damage. This extract might likewise ameliorate the signs of lymphedema and improve blood flow. It may also stimulate the immune system and have antioxidant impacts. (7 ).

What is it used for?

Traditional/ethnobotanical usages

In 1535, a french explorer is stated to have actually utilized tea made from the bark of the maritime pine to deal with scurvy amongst his sailors when his ship became icebound. The extract has actually been utilized for anemia, inflammation, and heart/blood vessel conditions. Pine bark has been used as a food source in emergency situations. Pine bark extract is offered without a prescription in us natural food shops and drug stores, in addition to from online sources.

General uses

Pine bark extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and has actually been studied for a wide variety of conditions, including asthma, attention deficit disorder, long-term blood flow problems, heart/blood vessel conditions, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction. Nevertheless, numerous clinical research studies have actually been small and improperly created. (8 ).

System of action

The main constituents of pine bark extracts are procyanidins and phenolic acids. Pine bark extract serves as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and suppressing production of peroxides. It increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes by increasing the intracellular glutathione levels. In addition to increasing no production which causes vasodilation, pine bark extract also blocks the nf-kb activation promoted by growth necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and prevents production of adhesion proteins that cause inflammation and atherosclerosis.

In vitro, pycnogenol induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and decreased neuronal apoptosis, an essential function of alzheimer’s illness, by reducing complimentary radical generation. In animal studies, cardioprotective effects were also credited to totally free extreme scavenging. (9 ).

Health benefits of pine bark extract

In southern france, the lovely and lush forests are home to a types of french evergreen (pinus pinaster) which contain special health-promoting homes. Its use dates back to the 1500s when french explorer jacques cartier and his sailors struggled with scurvy– frank vitamin c shortage– during their long cruising trips from france to the new world. The story goes that first countries tribes shared their ancestral knowledge with cartier and utilized the local evergreen bark as a preparation (e.g. Herbal tea) to prevent scurvy.

Today, we know that pine bark is an excellent source of vitamin c (the cure for scurvy) as well as various phytochemicals, natural plant substances that support much better health. The “all-stars” of the group are proanthocyanidins, effective antioxidant compounds (more potent than vitamin c and e) that offer a wealth of included health benefits. Let’s take a closer appearance listed below.

Boost antioxidant status

If you’re overweight, out of shape, or in poor health, your body will produce an excess of totally free extreme compounds that set off inflammation throughout the body, damaging your dna and jeopardizing your health. Anti-oxidants extinguish these internal fires. Research study has actually shown that pycnogenol– a patented formula of pine bark extract– is able to avoid and minimize this oxidative damage from free radicals.ensuring you eat a diet high in vegetables and fruit is also crucial to lay the structure for robust antioxidant intake (coffee is another great source, simply keep in mind to ditch the sugar!).

Enhance erectile dysfunction (blood flow)

Pine bark extract has a substantial influence on nitric oxide (no) levels in the body, which are accountable for vasodilation and enhancing blood flow. A current research study found the mix of pine bark extract and arginine (an amino acid that also improves no production) worked for improving mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.if you deal with low libido or erectile dysfunction, or struggle with high blood pressure, increasing no levels in the body is an effective method for assisting to reverse these conditions.

Balance blood glucose

Pine bark extract may supply some added advantages for you if you deal with high blood sugar, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of 77 diabetic clients taking their prescription medications, along with 100mg of supplemental pycnogenol, found greater improvement in blood sugar level control and cardiovascular health when pine bark extract was combined with diabetic medications. (make sure to speak with your medical professional prior to integrating any supplements with present medications you’re taking.).

Fight off common colds

There is nothing more frustrating than a nagging cold; it stalls your performance at work and in the health club. A study of 146 people suffering from a common cold found supplementing with pycnogenol was able to reduce the period (i.e. The number of days) and intensity (i.e. The intensity of the symptoms you experience) of the colds. This is fantastic news for keeping up your rate, even if you have actually got the sniffles.

Boost brain function

If you have actually been dealing with forgetting small details– like where you put your car secrets or what you’re expected to get for supper– you may be suffering from the early signs of age-related cognitive decrease. Stress, poor diet, and lack of sleep can all add to sub-optimal brain function, and while diet and workout are great for boosting healthy brain function, so too is pine bark extract. New research reveals that grownups over the age of 55, supplementing with pycnogenol throughout one year, revealed remarkable lead to brain related jobs compared to placebo groups. The researchers think the benefits originate from pine bark extract’s antioxidant effects and capability to reduce oxidative tension (connected with poor diet plan, high stress, lack of exercise, etc).

Safeguard skin from sun damage

Getting enough sun exposure and vitamin d is crucial for your health and vitality. New research study shows that not getting enough sun direct exposure is as harmful to your health as smoking.unfortunately; you don’t wish to compromise your skin along the way. The addition of additional pycnogenol has actually been shown to use protection from hazardous uvb rays and might reduce hyperpigmentation and improve skin barrier function. If you invest a great deal of time in the sun, this can be a great included skin assistance.

Reduce inflammation

Cytokines are a group of pro-inflammatory particles that are released when you get a cold or influenza, experience a fall or injury (or train too hard in the gym!), or if you’re struggling with a persistent health condition. Research study shows that pine bark extract can lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1 and il-6, responsible for a number of the unfavorable impacts of chronic swelling.

Pine bark extract can make a terrific addition to your nutritional arsenal for its potent antioxidant support, along with its added support for blood flow, blood sugar level, swelling, resistance, brain function and skin support. Pycnogenol is a standardized supplement formula guaranteed to contain a minimum of 65-75% proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient that sets off all these advantages. Keep in mind, a good diet plan and routine workout must always be the foundation for building your best health. Nevertheless, in some cases the body requires a little additional support and extra pycnogenol can go a long way to keeping your brain and body sharp this winter season. (10 ).

Other potential usages

Pine bark extracts are likewise being investigated for a multitude of other usages in human, animal, and test-tube research studies. These include:.

  • Healthy aging
  • Injury healing
  • Menopause bone loss
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd)
  • Skin health
  • Athletic efficiency
  • Improved cognition
  • Erectile dysfunction

That said, there’s not yet sufficient proof to totally support these uses.


Pine bark extract is being studied as a therapeutic alternative to treat several conditions. Its capabilities to reduce swelling and act as an antioxidant make it a strong candidate to treat persistent diseases. (11 ).

Side effects of maritime pine

There’s enough research out there on pine bark extract to understand that it tends to trigger some annoying (but typically mild) negative effects. These could consist of:.

  • Dizziness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Irritation
  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Mouth sores
  • Halitosis

Exist any major disadvantages?

Glad you asked. Because human research studies are lacking, pine bark extract is * potentially safe * when taken by mouth in dosages of 50 to 450 milligrams day-to-day (depending upon what it is being considered) for approximately 1 year. That said, it’s constantly a truly excellent concept to talk with your doctor before adding any brand-new supplement to your routine.

Remember! Even if something is “natural” doesn’t instantly suggest it’s good for you or even harmless.

Another essential fyi: some people might be at risk of possibly severe negative effects from pine bark extract. You should not take the stuff.

if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There’s not enough proof to say that it’s for sure safe, so do not risk it.

You have an autoimmune condition. Since pine bark extract can stimulate the immune system, it may make your symptoms worse.

You take antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. The supplement could up your risk for bleeding if you’re taking these meds.

You have diabetes. It’s possible that pine bark extract could tinker your blood sugar. (12 ).

Pycnogenol vs. Pine bark extract

Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, and there is little to no difference in between the two in terms of structure or results. You might utilize pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist deal with a variety of medical conditions, consisting of chronic venous insufficiency, retinopathy or impotence. Before you take pycnogenol or pine bark extract, consult your medical professional to talk about the appropriate dose and prospective health threats.


French marine pine bark extract is commonly sold under the name pycnogenol. It is used to prevent and deal with chronic venous insufficiency, as well as numerous other medical conditions, according to the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. Pycnogenol basically consists of pine bark extract from the pinus maritima tree. The organic treatment is sometimes also called french maritime pine bark extract, pygenol or oligomeric proanthocyanidin (opc).


Pine bark extract and pycnogenol include opcs, likewise called procyanidolic oligomers (pcos), which are likewise found in grape seed extract, reports the university of pittsburgh medical center (upmc). Opcs appear to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antimicrobial actions and may act to stimulate your body immune system, secure against atherosclerosis and prevent particular types of cancers, according to the sloan-kettering. Specifically, the opcs in pine bark extract and pycnogenol appear to prevent leaking in the blood vessels, and the flavonoids called catechin and taxifolin in the herb promote nitric oxide production in the body, which relaxes your capillary, describes.


Both pine bark extract and the product pycnogenol have comparable usages, generally for treating or avoiding persistent venous insufficiency, says. They may also assist in dealing with high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, numerous inflammation-related conditions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as help in avoiding cancer, notes sloan-kettering. Pycnogenol and pine bark extract might help deal with easy bruising, varicose veins, edema, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy or retinopathy, piles, premenstrual syndrome and tourist’s apoplexy, according to the upmc. You may take pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist support weight reduction and enhance night vision, along with to treat lupus, menopausal signs, periodontal disease, asthma, allergies and liver cirrhosis. No conclusive scientific research supports the use of pycnogenol or pine bark extract to prevent or deal with any medical condition, nevertheless. (13 ).


The following doses have been studied in clinical research study:.

By mouth:

  • For allergic reactions: 50 mg two times daily.
  • For asthma in children: 1 mg per pound of body weight given up 2 divided dosages.
  • For poor flow: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg 3 times daily.
  • For diseases of the retina, consisting of those related to diabetes: 50 mg three times daily.
  • For moderate hypertension: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily.
  • For enhancing exercise capacity in athletes: 200 mg daily. (14 )



The risk or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abciximab.


The danger or seriousness of bleeding and thrombocytopenia can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abrocitinib.


The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when aceclofenac is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The danger or severity of bleeding can be increased when acemetacin is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The risk or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with acenocoumarol.

Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid might increase the antiplatelet activities of maritime pine extract.


The danger or severity of bleeding can be increased when alclofenac is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The risk or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with aldesleukin.


The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alemtuzumab.


The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alteplase. (15 ).

Preventative measures

Before utilizing pine bark extract, notify your physician about your present list of medications, over-the-counter items (e.g. Vitamins, natural supplements, and so on), allergies, pre-existing illness, and present health conditions (e.g. Pregnancy, upcoming surgical treatment, and so on). Some health conditions may make you more prone to the side-effects of the drug. Take as directed by your physician or follow the instructions printed on the item insert. Dose is based upon your condition. Inform your doctor if your condition continues or worsens. Crucial counseling points are listed below.

Pregnant, planning to get pregnant or breastfeeding. (16 ).


Relating to the food industry, pine bark extracts have been effectively used as anti-oxidants in the meat market and have been proposed as interesting ingredients for the juice market and songzhen noodles production. On the other hand, different pinus spp bark extracts have been evaluated versus a vast array of disorders -cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective result and other oxidative stress and inflammatory-related diseases. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggest a promising future for pine as an adjuvant treatment. (17 ).


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