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Luteolin is a yellow crystalline flavonoid extensively present in plant families of pteridophyta, bryophyta, magnoliophyta, and pinophyta. It applies a range of biological impacts, consisting of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. [2]


Luteolin is the principal yellow dye substance that is obtained from the plant reseda luteola, which has been used as a source of the color because a minimum of the first millennium b.c. Luteolin was first separated in pure form, and named, in 1829 by the french chemist michel eugène chevreul. The luteolin empirical formula was figured out by the austrian chemists heinrich hlasiwetz and leopold pfaundler in 1864. In 1896, the english chemist arthur george perkin proposed the proper structure for luteolin. Perkin’s proposed structure for luteolin was confirmed in 1900 when the polish-swiss chemist stanislaw kostanecki (1860– 1910) and his students a. Różycki and j. Tambor manufactured luteolin. [3]

The very best foods with luteolin, according to a dietary psychiatrist


Parsley is among dr. Naidoo’s favorite herbs, given that it’s a crucial source of micronutrients that promote neurological health, with luteolin (and folate) chief among them. “parsley can help to boost psychological physical fitness, brain health, energy levels, and general cognition,” she describes, including that she enjoys topping this herb on salads and loading up on parsley-rich chimichurri with grass-fed steak, grilled tofu, or cauliflower.


This purple leafy vegetable is another great source of luteolin, making it an excellent choice to utilize as a base for salads or perhaps to substitute for wraps and tortillas. “its leaves resemble little boats, so i love to make healthy tacos by packing a radicchio leaf with other chopped veggies, avocado, and a tidy protein, seasoned with cumin and oregano and a burst of fresh squeezed lime,” dr. Naidoo shares. Taco tuesday with a side of brain-boosting, heart-healthy advantages, anybody?

Green bell peppers

Aside from being abundant in luteolin, green bell peppers likewise pack lots of other bioactive compounds “that display antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and immunostimulant homes, and antidiabetic, antitumoral and neuroprotective activities,” per a 2021 review in the medical journal particles. Dr. Naidoo advises consuming green bell peppers either “raw and chopped into a colorful salad, or grilled on vibrant skewers alongside other seasonal veggies.” Bonus offer points go to those who include these colorful peppers to the radicchio tacos above.

Chicory greens

While i recognize with chicory thanks to brand-new orleans– design coffee (which involves roasting, grinding, and brewing the root of the plant), dr. Naidoo states that their greens can be incorporated into meals comparable to other leafy greens. However, she warns that they have a robust taste profile, so she offers a few tips to enjoy them without frustrating your taste buds. “i recommend including chicory greens to soups or stews, or sautéing them in avocado oil for a flavorful side meal,” she recommends.


Whether you prefer your celery raw, cooked, or juiced, this flexible veggie can assist you enhance your consumption of anti-inflammatory luteolin. Dr. Naidoo discusses it’s a staple in many nutritious soup dishes (in fact, i’m slow-cooking a hearty chicken soup filled with chopped stalks of it right now), and that it likewise sets well with hummus or almond butter for a healthy, hydrating, and crispy snack.


As if we required another factor to enjoy this fall dietary staple, pumpkin also takes place to be a great source of luteolin. “i love roasting pumpkin and pureeing it into a warming soup with earthy spices like cinnamon and clove,” says dr. Naidoo. In the off season, you might also wish to treat on a handful of pumpkin seeds or integrate them into any number of dishes, as they include small amounts of this inflammation-busting flavonoid.


Last on dr. Naidoo’s go-to list of luteolin foods is kohlrabi, a cruciferous veggie comparable in taste to broccoli stems. “kohlrabi is a favorite vegetable of mine; i love to clean it and cut up pieces to chomp on,” she shares. You can also blend it into salads or enjoy it steamed, stir-fried, or grilled as part of larger meals. [4]

Mechanism of flavonoid action

Luteolin hinders several signaling steps consisting of pi3k, nfκb, pkcθ, stat3, and intracellular calcium ions. Flavonoids likewise prevent mc degranulation by connecting with unique vesicle-dependent snare complexes. It was just recently reported that specific flavonoids inhibited cytokine expression in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell by disrupting il-33 signaling.

Flavonoids can also hinder acetylcholinesterase, which will increase acetylcholine and improve memory. It is of interest that luteolin further inhibits release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, while it activates receptors for the repressive neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (gaba) independent of gaba, suggesting it may also have a soothing effect. In fact, benzodiazepines that act by activating gaba receptors were shown to bind to mcs. [5]

Prospective advantages of luteolin

Animal and cell research (lacking evidence)

No scientific evidence supports using luteolin for any of the conditions noted in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide more investigational efforts. Nevertheless, the studies listed below need to not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

Keep in mind to speak to a medical professional prior to taking luteolin supplements. They must never be used as a replacement for medical treatment.

May protect the brain and nerves

Luteolin had the ability to protect the brain and boost nerve advancement in various animal and cell studies by:.

  • Lowering glutamate levels
  • Combating brain inflammation and oxidative tension
  • Supporting neuron growth in the hippocampus
  • Avoiding protein anomalies

Alzheimer’s illness

Research studies on rats with alzheimer’s illness have verified the anti-inflammatory and brain-protecting effects of luteolin. It prevented alzheimer’s in animals by improving their cognition, memory, and coordination.

Luteolin guards human brain cells versus free-radical damage and inflammatory proteins particular to this disease.


Luteolin may fight anxiety in mice by protecting the nerves in the hippocampus (brain center for feelings and memory) and triggering gaba receptors.


In mice with seizures, luteolin had the ability to:.

  • Increase glutathione and lower oxidative brain damage
  • Increase the useful proteins– bdnf and creb
  • Reverse cognitive problems
  • Prevent seizures and reduce their seriousness


Luteolin revealed similar protective results in mice with different neurological disorders. As a result, it lowered the symptoms of:.

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Brain trauma
  • Numerous sclerosis

Animal research study recommends that luteolin may play a role in mental health, but human research is lacking.

Antimicrobial homes

Bacterial infections

The cell wall of gram-negative bacteria consists of lipopolysaccharides (lps), which can set off serious swelling in our bodies and trigger various signs of a bacterial infection.

In studies on mice, luteolin blocked lps-induced swelling and safeguarded the animals versus lethal infections. It had the ability to increase survival by as much as 44%.

Luteolin avoided lps-induced eye infection in rats by hindering inflammatory particles (tnf-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin-e2). It was as reliable as a corticosteroid drug, prednisolone.

Cell studies have actually validated the potential of luteolin to reverse the inflammation activated by lps. It obstructed inflammatory enzymes such as inos and cox-2.

Luteolin prevented breast inflammation (caused by s. Aureus) and lung inflammation (triggered by c. Pneumoniae and chlamydia) in mice.

Viral infections

In mice, luteolin prevented the dispersing of epstein-barr virus, preventing nose and throat cancer triggered by this virus. It likewise obstructed the liver disease b infection, which might cause extreme liver damage.

In a cell study, luteolin showed powerful activity versus japanese encephalitis virus (jev), the leading cause of viral brain swelling.

Luteolin has some antimicrobial and antiviral activity on direct contact and in mice.

Heart health

Heart disease still top the list of death causes, claiming 1/4 of lives in the us.

In studies on rats and their isolated hearts, luteolin had the ability to:.

  • Enhance heart cells and enhance contractions
  • Support heart enzymes
  • Avoid tissue damage and cell death
  • Secure the cells against oxidative tension throughout a heart attack

Luteolin reduced swelling and fat accumulation in capillary of mice, safeguarding them against atherosclerosis or plaque accumulation.

Luteolin strengthened and stabilized the heart and avoided fat accumulation in capillary in rat and mouse research studies.

Diabetes complications

In diabetes, high glucose levels eventually harm capillary, triggering a large range of diabetes complications. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in these complications.

Luteolin relieved oxidative damage in diabetic rats, safeguarding them versus:.

  • Diabetic encephalopathy (mental retardation)
  • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Diabetic cystopathy (bladder dysfunction)

In test tubes, the antioxidant results of luteolin avoided diabetic osteopathy, or bone destruction.

In diabetic rats, luteolin protected versus complications of diabetes that damage the brain, nerves, and bladder.

Swelling and allergic reactions

In mice, luteolin avoided swelling and allergic reaction in the lungs and nose by preventing inflammatory cytokines: il-4, il-5, and il-13.

It can also support mast cells, which release histamine and trigger allergies. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, luteolin is being researched as a possible complementary treatment for several sclerosis.

Skin protection

Ever heard guidance to “eat your sunscreen”? Here’s how it works: when you consume them, antioxidants such as luteolin may protect your skin from the inside and avoid uv-induced damage. Still, the exact same may not go for taking supplements.

Research studies on mice have actually verified this effect of luteolin. It reversed skin aging (by blocking mmp-1 expression) and even prevented skin cancer.

Effects on testosterone

In cell-based studies, luteolin functioned as an aromatase inhibitor. By blocking aromatase, it may lower the conversion of male sex hormonal agents to estrogens.

In one animal study, researchers have integrated luteolin with an aromatase inhibitor drug to decrease its negative effects in cancer treatment.

By blocking aromatase, luteolin might likewise work as a testosterone booster. Still, medical trials haven’t examined any of these effects, so they remain in the domain of theory up until more research study shows up.

Luteolin increased testosterone levels and avoided testicle diminishing in rats exposed to strong electro-magnetic (em) fields. Cellphones are one potential source of em field direct exposure.

Luteolin obstructs aromatase in cell research studies, but it is unclear whether it has this result in human beings and even in animals.

Cancer research

The findings gone over below originate from animal and cell-based research study only. They must guide additional research, however you shouldn’t translate them as encouraging of the real anticancer effects in human beings. Luteolin supplements can not avoid or treat any sort of cancer.

In research studies on mice and other lab animals, luteolin prevented the growth of:.

  • Prostate cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Liver cancer

Cells studies have included pancreatic and brain cancer to the list of luteolin potential targets. According to this research, luteolin could even fight drug-resistant cancer cells and boost the impacts of chemotherapy without significant adverse effects.

There is presently no place near enough proof to advise luteolin for the prevention or treatment of cancer, however research is continuous.

Limitations and caveats

Regardless of the promising results of various animal and cell-based studies, you shouldn’t interpret them as encouraging of any health advantage until more research is done.

Average dietary intake of luteolin can’t match the dosages used in preliminary medical research, and the body quickly breaks it down, which is another significant problem. [6]

Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin

Dietary plant flavonoids have actually been proposed to contribute to cancer avoidance, neuroprotection, and cardiovascular health through their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. As a consequence, flavonoid supplements are aggressively marketed by the nutraceutical industry for many functions, consisting of pediatric applications, regardless of insufficient understanding of their value and downsides. We show that 2 flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, are promiscuous endocrine disruptors. These flavonoids show progesterone antagonist activity advantageous in a breast cancer model but deleterious in an endometrial cancer design. Concurrently, luteolin has potent estrogen agonist activity while quercetin is considerably less reliable. These outcomes highlight the guarantee and peril of flavonoid nutraceuticals and suggest caution in supplements beyond levels achieved in a healthy, plant-rich diet. [7]

Kids with autism spectrum conditions, who enhanced with a luteolin-containing dietary formula, reveal lowered serum levels of tnf and il-6

Autism spectrum disorders (asds) have been related to brain inflammation as indicated by microglia activation, in addition to brain expression and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 (il-6) and growth necrosis factor (tnf). Here we report that serum levels of il-6 and tnf rose (61.95 ± 94.76 pg ml − 1 and 313.8 ± 444.3 pg ml − 1, respectively) in the same cohort of patients with raised serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormonal agent (crh) and neurotensin (nt), while il-9, il-31 and il-33 were not different from controls. The raised crh and nt levels did not alter after treatment with a luteolin-containing dietary formula. Nevertheless, the mean serum il-6 and tnf levels decreased considerably (p= 0.036 and p= 0.015, respectively) at the end of the treatment period (26 weeks) as compared to levels at the beginning; these declines were highly related to children whose habits enhanced the most after luteolin formula treatment. Our results suggest that there are distinct subgroups of children within the asds that might be identifiable through serum levels of il-6 and tnf which these cytokines may constitute unique prognostic markers for a minimum of the beneficial impact of luteolin formula. [8]

Luteolin prevents cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells through downregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

Luteolin is a flavonoid, which has been extensively examined due to its antitumor effects; nevertheless, the hidden systems of its action stay mostly unknown. The present research study aimed to examine the function of luteolin in breast cancer (bc), and explored how luteolin reduces the growth and causes the apoptosis of bc cells. The mts assay was used to identify the anticancer activity of luteolin. Nest formation and transwell assays were carried out to assess the impacts of luteolin on cell growth and intrusion. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by circulation cytometry. In addition, western blotting was carried out to examine cellular apoptosis and signaling pathways generated by luteolin. The present research study exposed that the proliferation of the bc cell line mda‑mb‑231 was efficiently reduced by luteolin in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, luteolin was revealed to increase apoptotic rates in bc cells. Dose‑dependent cell cycle arrest in s phase was observed following treatment with luteolin in mda‑mb‑231 cells. Mechanistically, luteolin minimized telomerase levels in a dose‑dependent way. In addition, luteolin prevented phosphorylation of the nuclear factor‑κb inhibitor α and its target gene c‑myc, to reduce human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) expression, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Collectively, the outcomes of the present research study indicated that luteolin might prevent bc cell development by targeting htert, suggesting that the system of htert guideline by luteolin might validate further study regarding its possible as a healing target for bc treatment. [9]

The dietary flavonoid, luteolin, adversely affects neuronal distinction

Luteolin, a polyphenolic plant flavonoid, has been associated with numerous useful properties like anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. Luteolin has been reported previously to be neuroprotective in designs of spine injury and terrible brain injury and likewise causes neurite outgrowth in pc12 cells. Nevertheless, the effect of luteolin on early distinction, which might be crucial for its useful results, is unidentified. In this report, we reveal that luteolin adversely affects early distinction of embryonic stem cells, obstructing the formation of embryoid bodies. At later stages of differentiation, luteolin specifically prevents neuronal differentiation, where the expression of early neuronal markers is suppressed, whereas luteolin treatment does not hinder expression of meso- and endodermal markers. Even more, in a developing zebrafish design, luteolin treatment leads to fewer varieties of mitotic cells in the brain. These particular results of luteolin on neuronal distinction might perhaps be due to its ability to prevent the lysine acetyltransferase, p300, given that the structurally closely associated p300 non-inhibitor flavonoid, apigenin, does not inhibit neuronal differentiation. These results reveal that luteolin worries neuronal distinction of embryonic stem cells. [10]

Negative effects

Luteolin displays many useful anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, estrogen inhibition and neuro-protective markers.

This equates to assisting those suffering from persistent illness, autism and even low testosterone.

Similarly essential, these restorative impacts are met with little to no adverse side effects.

Take home

Our very first concern was how luteolin results levels of testosterone.

It has been developed that luteolin safeguards the function of the testes by utilizing its anti-oxidant impacts.

It likewise adds to hormone balance by avoiding the aromatase enzymes from converting valuable testosterone to estrogen.

However, further research study in to luteolin has likewise discovered its other qualities.

It has effective anti-inflammatory impacts that can kill cells to deal with cancer while being able to improve the condition of autism in children.

All of this protective power from a range of natural plant, nuts and fruit sources.

This benefit comes with little to no undesirable negative effects. [11]

Further negative effects of luteolin

Luteolin is normally safe to take in. Adverse effects may take place in some people, specifically those who take the flavonoid in high dosages as a dietary supplement, however these are unusual and improperly understood. In one mouse study, luteolin worsened chemical-induced colitis, however whether this applies to people remains to be seen.

A cell line research study suggests that luteolin (and quercetin) “display progesterone villain activity useful in a breast cancer design however negative in an endometrial cancer design.” However, this is simply a cell line research study, and it just recommends care with consuming luteolin through supplement, not from a plant-rich diet plan.

One openlabel pilot study on children with autism spectrum disorder (aud) suggests that luteolin may have both favorable and unfavorable effects, as adaptive functioning (how well a person handles typical demands in life and how independent they are) improved, however their irritation increased also.

Consult with your physician before taking luteolin supplements. Like many dietary supplements, luteolin supplements have not gotten fda approval. Moreover, luteolin supplements might not be safe to take if you are taking blood pressure medications, calcium channel blockers and particular other prescription drugs.

Guideline: the best way to experience any plant compound is directly from the natural source, not from a tablet. [12]

Realities of luteolin

Luteolin is a chemical that is classified as a citrus bioflavonoid. It is a yellow crystal in pure type, which is common for flavonoids. Luteolin has numerous uses as a health supplement due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory homes. These residential or commercial properties allow luteolin to scavenge reactive substances including oxygen and nitrogen, which can cause cellular damage. Additional biological effects of luteolin include the activation of the dopamine transporter.

Luteolin is produced by numerous plants, a number of which are edible. Considerable dietary sources of luteolin consist of citrus fruits, especially oranges. Broccoli, carrots, celery and green pepper are veggies that also consist of luteolin. Herbs with luteolin consist of parsley, peppermint, rosemary and oregano. Peanut hulls are among the most essential industrial sources of luteolin. These hulls are an affordable source considering that they’re a spin-off of processed peanuts.

Ethanol reflux is a common technique of drawing out luteolin from peanut hulls. This process basically consists of blending the powdered hulls with 70 percent ethanol to get a liquid/solid ratio of 20:1. This mixture is then heated at 85 degrees celsius for a minimum of 1.5 hours. The vapor that comes off the mix is high in luteolin, which can be additional concentrated to a high level of purity. [13]


Interactions in between dietary flavonoids apigenin or luteolin and chemotherapeutic drugs to potentiate anti-proliferative impact on human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro

The goals were to examine the potential of dietary flavonoids apigenin (api) and luteolin (lut) to boost the anti-proliferative results of chemotherapeutic drugs on bxpc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells and to examine the possible molecular mechanism of action. Simultaneous treatment or pretreatment (0, 6, 24 and 42 h) of flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs and various concentrations (0-50 μm) were examined utilizing the mts cell proliferation assay. Synchronised treatment with either flavonoid (0,13, 25 or 50 μm) and chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-fu, 50 μm) or gemcitabine (gem, 10 μm) for 60 h led to less-than-additive effect (p<< 0.05). Pretreatment for 24 h with 13 μm of either api or lut, followed by gem for 36 h was optimum to inhibit cell expansion. Pretreatment of cells with 11-19 μm of either flavonoid for 24 h led to 59-73% growth inhibition when followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h). Lut (15 μm, 24 h) pretreatment followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h), significantly decreased protein expression of nuclear gsk-3β and nf-κb p65 and increased pro-apoptotic cytosolic cytochrome c. Pretreatment of human pancreatic cancer cells bxpc-3 with low concentrations of api or lut efficiently help in the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. [14]

Signs you may need luteolin

Poor neurological functions are generally the most significant signs that you may need luteolin, particularly if you are over the age of 50. These functions include memory, learning and motor skills. Signs of oxidative tension such as skin lesions and wrinkles are a few of the more visible indications that you may require luteolin. Inflammatory conditions that impact the nerve system are some of the persistent signs that luteolin might benefit you. Auto-immune disorders might likewise imply that you require extra luteolin. [15]

Why you should take luteolin with pea?

Luteolin is thought to work very well with pea to fight neuroinflammation and oxidative tension.

This coadministration has a remarkable result than use of the molecules alone.

Pea and luteolin considerably decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis paths. They modulate cytokine release and activation of astrocytes and glial cells, which reduces oxidative tension. Pea and luteolin boost expression of neurotrophic factors and boost regeneration of nerve cells.

Those that have suffered a stroke that were treated with co-pea/luteolin likewise had gains in cognitive function, muscle spasticity improvement and movement. [16]


The useful residential or commercial properties of luteolin have actually been understood for many years and are mainly related to the decrease of inflammation and the defense of the body from oxidative stress.

In fact, luteolin belongs of lots of herbs utilized in traditional chinese medicine to lower inflammation levels, deal with high blood pressure, and other conditions. [17]


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