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Glucosamine is a natural substance discovered in cartilage– the difficult tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement type, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a laboratory. There are a number of forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements aren’t thought about interchangeable.

People use glucosamine sulfate orally to deal with a painful condition brought on by swelling, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).


Research study on glucosamine usage for particular conditions shows:.

Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate may supply some pain relief for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Some research study shows that it may also assist slow knee joint degeneration connected with osteoarthritis. More studies are required to identify the benefits of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spine or hand.

Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might decrease pain related to rheumatoid arthritis. However, researchers didn’t see an enhancement in inflammation or the number of painful or inflamed joints.

When considering glucosamine, checked out item labels thoroughly to make certain you choose the correct type. There’s less clinical evidence to support making use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research is needed to confirm its advantages. (1 ).


The body utilizes glucosamine to build and fix cartilage. Cartilage is a versatile, difficult, rubbery connective tissue that safeguards the bones in the joints. It offers cushioning and avoids the bones from rubbing together. As individuals age, their cartilage can become less flexible and start to break down. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for instance, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some proof that glucosamine may slow this procedure and advantage cartilage health.

Glucosamine occurs naturally in the body, but levels fall as people grow older. In time, the reduction could contribute to joint deterioration. (2 ).


Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose) is an endogenous aminomonosaccharide synthesized from glucose and made use of for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine is present in almost all human tissues, highly concentrated in connective tissues of the human body, and found at greatest concentrations in the cartilage. In humans, about 90 percent of glucosamine is taken in when administered as an oral dose of glucosamine sulfate, and is quickly included into articular cartilage. Glucosamine can be found in many forms, including sulfate, hydrochloride, N-acetyl-glucosamine, or chlorohydrate salt, and as a dextrorotatory isomer. There is some conflict over which kind is most effective. Pooled findings from studies using a particular business glucosamine sulfate item called Dona recommend that this formula reduces osteoarthritis discomfort, whereas other formulas do not.11 Another research study carried out in China supplies some proof that glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are similarly efficient.

The sulfate salt of glucosamine types one half of the disaccharide subunit of keratan sulfate, which reduces in patients with osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid (discovered in articular cartilage and synovial fluid) is made up of duplicating dimeric systems of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. Possible systems of action for the chondroprotective effect of glucosamine consist of direct stimulation of chondrocytes, incorporation of sulfur into cartilage, and protection against degradative processes within the body through transformed gene expression. The precise mechanism of action for the possible effect of glucosamine is unidentified. (3 ).


In natural medicine, supporters claim that glucosamine may help with the following illness:.

  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • Swelling
  • Inflammatory bowel illness (such as ulcerative colitis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Temporomandibular joint condition
  • Health Advantages

Glucosamine has actually been commonly studied with inconclusive results. It might provide health advantages consisting of a decrease in pain, although a 2018 review released in the journal Orthopedics recommends the advantages may be because of a placebo result.

Here’s a take a look at a few of the crucial research studies and their findings:.


Glucosamine might be of advantage in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in the knee. Despite some very favorable findings, there likewise a lot of proof opposing these claims.

An early report published in the Cochrane Database of Organized Evaluations concluded that some preparations of glucosamine might lower discomfort and enhance operating in individuals with known osteoarthritis. The research study analyzed 20 randomized controlled research studies including an overall of 2,570 adults.

One of the biggest glucosamine studies, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), questioned these outcomes. Called the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), the two-year research study compared the efficiency of glucosamine and chondroitin in 662 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and concluded that neither showed any advantage in eliminating knee pain. Subsequent studies have offered no clearer evidence of any benefits. However, some scientists still compete that glucosamine not only helps reduce arthritis discomfort but likewise avoids cartilage loss.

According to a six-year research study published in Arthritis Care & & Research, cartilage loss seemed slowed in grownups with knee osteoarthritis who had taken glucosamine and chondroitin for up to 6 years. The advantages seemed higher the longer the supplements are taken.

More research study is required to understand these contradictions.


Glucosamine is potentially reliable for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis, according to a little study published in the Journal of Reseach in Drug Store Practice. The trial involved 60 grownups with TMJ who were provided either glucosamine, ibuprofen, or a placebo for 90 days. Although glucosamine and ibuprofen were both more efficient in alleviating pain than a placebo, ibuprofen showed superior to glucosamine.

Low Back Pain

Glucosamine may not benefit individuals with persistent lower neck and back pain and degenerative back osteoarthritis, according to a 2010 research study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The six-month trial, involving 250 individuals with both conditions, concluded that glucosamine was no better than the placebo in providing arthritis pain relief. (4 ).

Inadequate Evidence to Rate Efficiency for …

Joint discomfort triggered by drugs that lower estrogen levels. Early research study suggests that taking a combination of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in 2 or three divided doses daily for 24 weeks minimizes discomfort in ladies taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.

Uncomfortable bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis). Early research recommends that taking a particular product consisting of glucosamine sulfate, salt hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin, and rutin (cystoprotek, Tischon Corporation, Westbury, NY) 4 times daily for 12 months reduces signs of uncomfortable bladder syndrome.

Joint discomfort. Research shows that taking a specific product including glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Assistance, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in 3 divided dosages daily for 8 weeks reduces joint discomfort. But this product doesn’t appear to assist joint tightness or function.

Knee discomfort. Some research study reveals that taking a particular product consisting of glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Assistance, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain in people with knee pain. But this product doesn’t seem to help joint stiffness or function. Other early research study shows that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not minimize knee pain in professional athletes following a knee injury. However, it does seem to improve knee motion.

Numerous sclerosis. Early research study reveals that taking 1000 mg of glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months may decrease the regression of numerous sclerosis.

Jaw discomfort (Temporomandibular disorder). Some research reveals that taking glucosamine sulfate works about in addition to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc) For easing jaw discomfort. In some individuals, pain relief appears to continue for up to 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is stopped. However, research study suggests that when 1200 mg of glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth daily for 6 months, jaw pain and the ability to open the jaw are not improved.

  • Weight loss.
  • Other conditions. 5

Who Should Take Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate?

Numerous patients who experience osteoarthritis might benefit from the favorable effects of taking this supplement. The unpleasant symptoms of osteoarthritis might appear when cartilage becomes worn, and exposed bones begin to rub together. Conventional medicine does not yet have a proven treatment to stop or slow the progression of osteoarthritis. Conventional medical treatment consists of drug therapy to control the pain associated with osteoarthritis. These treatments are sometimes disappointing for physicians and clients because medications may not provide complete relief and can have undesirable side effects. A few of these clients might be prospects for dietary supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

How Do I Take These Supplements?

Typical dose is 1500mg for glucosamine sulfate and 1200mg for chondroitin sulfate, taken daily. For body weight less than 100 lbs, the dose is normally minimized to 1000mg for glucosamine sulfate and 800mg for chondroitin sulfate.

Duration of treatment has actually not yet been identified.

Reported improvement (e.g. Reduction in unpleasant symptoms) differs from 3 weeks to as much as eight weeks.

Some research studies have shown ongoing improvement of signs after oral intake was stopped.

Generally, if there is no discomfort reduction after two months, there is little chance of improvement.

Patients must keep a diary of their signs when treatment begins to much better judge any modifications in pain level or joint movement, and this information must be shown their physician. (6 ).

Glucosamine Connected to Heart Advantages

Glucosamine, the dietary supplement extensively utilized for arthritic discomfort, may reduce the danger for cardiovascular disease, scientists report.

Researchers looked at 466,039 British males and females, ages 40 to 69, who were without heart disease at the start of the research study. Individuals finished in-depth health surveys that consisted of information on the use of dietary supplements. Nearly 90,000 of them, or 19 percent, reported regular use of glucosamine. The research study, in BMJ, tracked the participants’ health for an average of seven years.

Compared to those who did not utilize the supplement, glucosamine users had an 18 percent lower danger of coronary heart problem, and a 15 percent lower risk of any cardiovascular occasion. There was a weak association with a reduced risk for stroke.

The research study managed for diet plan, exercise, smoking, disease history and other characteristics.

” This is excellent news for people who take these supplements,” said the senior author, Lu Qi, a professor of public health at Tulane University. However prior to suggesting its use, he added, “we really require extra information from population studies and further, more solid data from clinical trials.”.

The exact factor for the link is not known, however the researchers recommend that glucosamine may decrease inflammation by lowering blood levels of C reactive protein, an indication of swelling, or by mimicking the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet, which some research studies have actually recommended is connected with a lower danger of heart disease.

The researchers keep in mind that efficiency of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis and joint discomfort continues to be disputed. (7 ).

Natural Sources of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a natural substance found in healthy cartilage– the hard tissue that cushions joints– and particularly in the fluid around the joints.

For dietary supplements, glucosamine is collected from the shells of shellfish (like shrimp, lobster and crab) or made artificially in a laboratory.

There are no health food sources of glucosamine other than shellfish shells, per the Mayo Center. But, there are many supplements offered. You will typically see glucosamine sold in combination with chondroitin sulfate in a supplement kind. (8 ).


The Arthritis Structure lists a suggested dosage of 500 milligrams to 3 grams of glucosamine and chondroitin a day in divided dosages for a minimum of a month.


Think it or not, as mentioned above there are no health food sources for glucosamine. Whereas most glucosamine supplements are sourced from shells of shellfish (crabs, lobster, shrimp, etc), there isn’t a list of vegetables, fruits, or protein options you can make a note of on your next grocery list. This is probably another reason why glucosamine supplements are the 2nd most popular dietary supplement taken. Furthermore, this is why it’s so important to supplement glucosamine in the first place.

Flex: The Xyngular Service For Optimum Joint Health *

Strenuous activity, physical work, natural aging, and even being simply a little obese can put a lot of extra tension on our joints. In fact, being overweight by as low as 5 pounds might put an extra 15-30 pounds of additional force on your knees. To counteract the concerns of joint wear and tear, to keep your body in motion, to keep you active and versatile, Flex assists oil active joints, nourishes and enhances connective tissues, and helps reduce joint inflammation connected with physical activity.

Flex contains no soy, just needs to be taken once a day, includes no stimulants like caffeine and green tea, includes zero nuts, utilizes vegetarian capsules, made in the U.S., can be handled an empty stomach, is an excellent alternative for post-exercise joint healing, and can be taken with other Xyngular supplement. Our premium Flex formula of glucosamine and boswellia serrata are among the most reliable duos on the market to support your joints and help in reducing swelling typically related to exercise. (9 ).

Is it safe?

Side-effects, which are normally moderate and infrequent, consist of:.

  • Stomach upsets
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headaches

If you dislike shellfish, you need to ensure that you take the shellfish-free range.

You need to likewise be cautious about taking glucosamine if you have diabetes. Glucosamine may increase your blood sugar level and it might suggest that you need to adjust your treatment to make sure it carried on working. There are numerous reports of interaction between glucosamine and anti-diabetic treatments. There are also some reports of possible interaction with chemotherapy drugs and drugs that lower blood cholesterol. (10 ).

What is the most important info I should learn about glucosamine?

Follow all instructions on the product label and plan. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergic reactions, and all medications you use.

What should I go over with my healthcare provider prior to taking glucosamine?

You ought to not use this product if you dislike glucosamine.

Ask a medical professional, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider if it is safe for you to utilize this item if you have:.

  • Diabetes;
  • High cholesterol or triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood);
  • Cancer;
  • Liver illness;
  • Asthma or other breathing disorder;
  • If you are allergic to shellfish; or
  • If you take a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
  • It is not known whether glucosamine will damage a coming infant. Do not utilize this item without medical recommendations if you are pregnant.
  • Glucosamine might pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing child. Do not use this item without medical guidance if you are breast-feeding a child.
  • Do not offer any herbal/health supplement to a kid without medical recommendations.

How should I take glucosamine?

When thinking about the use of herbal supplements, look for the suggestions of your medical professional. You might likewise consider speaking with a professional who is trained in using herbal/health supplements.

If you pick to utilize glucosamine, utilize it as directed on the bundle or as directed by your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not use more of this product than is suggested on the label.

Do not utilize different formulas of glucosamine at the same time without medical recommendations. Utilizing various solutions together increases the threat of an overdose of glucosamine.

This medicine can trigger unusual outcomes with a blood glucose (sugar) test. Do not use this item without a medical professional’s recommendations if you are diabetic.

If you need surgery, tell the cosmetic surgeon ahead of time that you are utilizing glucosamine. You might require to stop using the medicine for a short time.

It may use up to 8 weeks before your signs enhance. For best outcomes, keep using glucosamine as directed.Call your doctor if your signs do not improve, or if they become worse while utilizing glucosamine. Store at space temperature away from moisture and heat.

What takes place if I miss out on a dosage?

Avoid the missed dosage if it is nearly time for your next set up dose. Do not utilize additional glucosamine to comprise the missed dose.

What should I prevent while taking glucosamine?

Some glucosamine products likewise include manganese. Taking excessive of this mix can cause a manganese overdose. Do not take more than directed on the medicine label.

What other drugs will impact glucosamine?

Other drugs may communicate with glucosamine, consisting of prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and organic products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medications you use now and any medication you begin or stop using.

Where can I get more info?

Talk to a certified health care expert prior to utilizing any herbal/health supplement. Whether you are dealt with by a medical doctor or a practitioner trained in the use of natural medicines/supplements, make certain all your doctor know about all of your medical conditions and treatments. (11 ).

Unique Preventative Measures and Cautions

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t adequate trusted information to understand if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to utilize when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid usage.

Asthma: Glucosamine may make asthma worse. Till more is understood, individuals with asthma should be cautious about taking items that contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: There utilized to be some concern that glucosamine may increase blood sugar level levels. But most research reveals that glucosamine does not increase blood glucose levels in individuals with diabetes.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine might increase the pressure inside the eye and might worsen glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, talk to your doctor prior to taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: There used to be some issue that glucosamine may increase cholesterol levels. But many research reveals that glucosamine does not seem to increase cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure: There utilized to be some issue that glucosamine may increase high blood pressure. But most research reveals that glucosamine does not appear to increase high blood pressure.

Shellfish allergy: Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. If you have a shellfish allergic reaction, talk to your doctor prior to utilizing glucosamine.


Significant Interaction

Do not take this combination.

Warfarin (Coumadin) connects with Glucosamine

Warfarin is utilized to slow blood clotting. Taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the impacts of warfarin. This can increase the threat for major bruising and bleeding. Don’t take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination.

Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors) communicates with Glucosamine

Some medications for cancer work by reducing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. Glucosamine might block these medications from working. Taking glucosamine along with some medications for cancer might reduce the effectiveness of these medications.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this mix.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) interacts with Glucosamine

Taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen together may impact how well each works. However more details is needed to know if this interaction is a huge issue.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with GLUCOSAMINE

Glucosamine may increase blood sugar levels. Taking glucosamine along with diabetes medications may minimize the effects of these medications. Screen your blood sugar closely. (12 ).


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