Table of Contents
Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris) is generally found as a wild species with blue nodding bonnetts, typically understood by the name common columbine. This plant is from the ranunculaceae household. There is a long history of cultivation and advancement in gardens which has actually led to the majority of beautiful variations of colour, the flowers include tones of mauve, purple, pink and white. An easily grown, popular plant found throughout home gardens, this columbine will quickly self-seed and quickly fill your garden with a selection of colour throughout spring.
This types becomes part of the royal horticultural society “plants for pollinators” initiative to showcase plants which support pollinator populations by providing sufficient amounts of nectar and/ or pollen. An excellent choice for motivating pollinating insect wildlife into your garden! 
Columbine flowers have actually adjusted in order to much better draw in pollinators. Aquilegia’s journey to becoming a house garden staple is an incredibly long one, beginning 40,000 years ago when the world looked exceptionally various from what it does today.
The story starts around eastern europe and central asia, where the ancestors of these modern-day plants stem. Simply three ancestral species form the makeup of all contemporary aquilegia species from these 2 areas. So how did they end up in the United States and Canada?
Archaeologists believe the location of beringia, a stretch of ocean in between russia and alaska/canada, was once traversable land that connected asia and the United States and Canada. This tip emerged after late pleistocene animal stays were discovered on the islands of the bering sea in the 19th century. Additional research study has suggested the existence of a bering land bridge that both people and plants crossed in between 10 000 and 40 000 years earlier.
Columbine was one of the many plants that made this journey from continent to continent. Genetic studies show the asian ancestral types aquilegia viridiflora made its way to alaska, spreading out from there to other parts of canada and the united states.
As it moved through parts of the continent, the plant progressed into the many variations we see today. The colors and shapes of the flowers customized themselves to draw in pollinators and facilitate the spread of the genus.
Columbines changed their color to flowering in blue, in order to draw in bees and butterflies in particular. Yellow columbines changed shapes to permit hawk moths to reach the nectar. The columbine’s red flowers produce sweeter nectar to favor hummingbirds. Each types adapted to the pollinators in their location in order to spread, permitting them to survive the 10,000-year journey into the contemporary. 
Seasonal herbs, with woody, set up stock, roots forming thick roots. The basal leaves are compound, 1– 3 ternate, blades 3-lobed -partite, and lobes lobulate and obtuse. The cauline leaves are similar to the basal ones, while the upper ones are bract like.
The hermaphrodite (bisexual) flowers are terminal to stem and branches. They are usually pentamerous (with five dispersing perianth petaloid sepal segments). Five tubular honey-leaves [a] are semi erect with a flat limb and spurred or saccate at the base. The spur is directed backwards and produces nectar. Endurances are numerous (frequently more than 50) in whorls of 5, the innermost being scarious staminodes. There are ten membranaceous intrastaminal scales. There are 5 pistils and the carpels are complimentary.
The fruit has numerous (5 to 15) roots which are semi put up and a little connate downwards. These hold lots of seeds and are formed at the end of the pistils. The nectar is primarily consumed by long-beaked birds such as hummingbirds. Almost all aquilegia species have a ring of staminodia around the base of the preconception, which might assist safeguard against pests. Chromosome number is x= 7. 
The common european columbine (aquilegia vulgaris) grows 45– 75 cm (18– 30 inches) tall along roadsides and woodland edges. The species and its numerous hybrids, which are understood for their nodding flowers with brief incurved stimulates, are cultivated widely in north america. From colorado blue columbine (a. Caerulea) and golden columbine (a. Chrysantha), both belonging to the rocky mountains, have been developed lots of garden hybrids with showy long-spurred flowers in a range of colours ranging from white to yellow, red, and blue. The wild columbine, or eastern red columbine, of north america (a. Canadensis) grows in woods and on rocky ledges from southern canada southward. It is 30 to 90 cm (1 to 3 feet) tall. The flowers are red with touches of yellow and are pollinated by hummingbirds. 
Columbines grow well in sun or light shade. Prepare the bed with well-draining soil of average fertility.
When to plant columbine
Plant columbine seeds directly into the ground in the spring. Permit the plant to self-seed after it flowers and it will produce numerous volunteer seedlings in the following year.
Additionally, plant seeds indoors 8 to 10 weeks prior to the last spring frost.
How to plant columbine
- Press the seed into the soil, however do not cover it.
- Thin to the greatest plants.
- If setting a mature plant into a container, create a hole two times the size of the “old” pot. Set the top of the root ball level with the soil surface area. Fill in with soil, then tamp gently, and water.
- Outdoors, space mature plants 1 to 2 feet apart, depending on mature size of the variety. Water completely.
- Prevent overwatering.
- Deadhead faded flowers. New buds will develop along the stems. The blossom season can thus be extended by as long as 6 weeks into summer.
- Cut foliage to the ground in the fall.
- Prior to the ground freezes, mulch to safeguard plants.
Eastern red columbine (aquilegia canadensis) has actually distinct, extended hollow tubes inside the flower that point upwards. Belonging to north america.
‘ corbett’ is a dwarf variety with pale yellow flowers. Resistant to leaf miners.
‘ little lanterns’ has to do with 10 inches high with blue-green foliage and red and yellow flowers. Resistant to leaf miners.
European columbine (a. Vulgaris) ‘william guiness’– spectacular deep purple-black outer petals with white-rimmed inner petals. Bushy, growing up to 30 inches tall.
The swan series consists of numerous midsize (16- to 22-inch), bi-color hybrids:.
- ‘ swan pink and yellow’: soft pink outer petals with pastel yellow inner petals.
- ‘ swan red and white’: red external petals with white inner petals.
Cut flowers for indoor plans when they are half open. Vase life is 5 to 7 days.
Wit and wisdom
Columbine’s latin name, aquilegia, is derived from the latin word for eagle, aquila. The long spurs that extend behind the flower petals look like the claws of an eagle.
Native americans traditionally used the crushed seeds as a love beauty and for medical purposes.
The crushed roots and seeds were once utilized to treat headaches, heart issues, and sore throats. 
Common columbine pests
Columbines are generally low-maintenance (if temporary) plants with couple of issues in home gardens. However there are two kinds of insect pests that can be in your area typical that cause conspicuous damage to the plants, specifically on hybrid columbines (aquilegia × hybrida): columbine leafminers and columbine.
Sawfly. Fortunately the damage usually just affects the plant’s look and usually doesn’t affect the plant’s health or survival. If either of these bugs end up being too bothersome, a much better choice is to replace them with the native aquilegia canadensis that is not impacted nearly as much.
Columbine leafminers are small, dark colored flies belonging to north america that garden enthusiasts seldom notice. The species phytomyza aquilegivora is the most typical one that frequently takes place in the midwest, making distinctive serpentine trails in the leaves. P. Aquilegiana, which produces spot mines, happens in eastern the United States and Canada, and p. Columbinae is a western types that develops linear mines. The female fly lays its eggs singly on the leaves in spring about the same time the plants are starting to flower. The larvae (maggots) then tunnel into the leaf, feeding upon the tissue between the upper and lower leaf surfaces.
As they eat their way through the tissue, they produce meandering tunnels that grow larger as the pests establish. This feeding shows as a squiggly white line or trail (or spot) on the outside of the leaf. There can be more than one larva per leaf.
As soon as the larva has completed its advancement it tunnels out of the leaf and cuts a crescent shaped hole in the leaf to pupate holding on the underside of the leaf in a small yellowish to dark brown, glossy puparium. After a couple of weeks another generation of adults emerge. There can be approximately 3 generations annually, with the last generation of maggots dropping to the ground, to burrow in and overwinter in the soil as pupae.
Due to the fact that the damage is typically only cosmetic, chemical controls are normally not advised. Unless the invasion is really heavy, the mines can be ignored, or the impacted leaves can be picked off and destroyed (as early as possible, before the larvae pupate, to decrease the population in the next generation). There are also many hymenopteran parasitoids that will kill columbine leafminers, although they will not avoid leaf damage, considering that the parasitized larvae still mine the leaves before they are killed. If insecticides need to be used, treatments must be used when the grownups first appear. The adult flies make punctures in the foliage with their ovipositors in order to drink plant fluids, and these small marks are a great sign of the activity of these insects; insecticide applications must be made as soon as they appear to eliminate both the grownups and the freshly hatched larvae (but these products likely will kill helpful insects, too). Once the maggots are inside the leaf insecticidal sprays will not have the ability to reach them.
Grownup columbine sawflies.
The columbine sawfly, pristiphora rufipes *, is an insect related to ants, wasps and bees (hymenoptera) with a larval phase that looks like a caterpillar (larvae of lepidoptera). This european types was first found in north america in ottawa, canada in 1963. It was found in new york in 1985 and has because spread west to minnesota. The grownup is a typical-looking sawfly– like a wasp with no waist– about 1/4 inch long. It is mainly black with some whitish markings on the head and pale orange legs. The women lay eggs on the leaves in late spring and the green larvae with dark heads start feeding upon the leaf edges. They eat inward, eventually consuming everything however the midvein as they mature to about 1/2 inch long. When they grow after a few weeks, the larvae drop off the leaves to pupate in brown, oval cocoons amid leaf litter. There is only one generation a year in the upper midwest.
The larvae are just active in late spring, generally from april to june. If numerous, they can feast on all the leaves, leaving only the stripped stems and flowers. Severe invasions can eliminate a plant but this is unusual. Their feeding damage is mostly cosmetic and even columbines that are totally defoliated will recuperate. Unless stressed by other aspects, within a couple of weeks it will put out another flush of leaves.
These sawflies are small and the very same color as the leaves and often feed on the underside of the leaves during the day, so they are simple to miss out on till defoliation is extreme. Plants ought to be examined often in spring, specifically where these pests have actually happened in the past, so that they can be managed as soon as possible to prevent substantial plant damage. They are simple to choose or knock off the plants into a container soapy water. If physical removal isn’t useful, insecticidal soap will kill the little larvae (but the spray need to cover them) without affecting other animals, but bt will not, as it only kills real caterpillars. Since birds eat or feed sawflies to their young, other kinds of pesticides with residual activity must be used only as a last option for severe invasions. If the majority of the leaves are currently gone, cut the plant down to the ground and damage the remnants.
There are numerous types of sawflies, with many able to feed only on one kind of plant. Other plants frequently attacked by sawflies include roses, pines and mountain ash, but the sawfly types that assault those plants are not the like the one that eats columbine. 
Kinds of columbine flowers
Lots of kinds of columbine flowers are discovered. It won’t be an exaggeration if we inform you that columbine flowers are found in almost all colors! The most typical types of columbine flowers have actually been note down for you.
Aquilegia alpine is frequently referred to as alpine columbine. It is belonging to mountain slopes of the alps and high meadows of europe. They are compact species of columbine, with bright violet-blue colored flowers that are bonnet-shaped. The nodding flowers rise on slim stems. The foliage of alpine columbine is blue-green in color. Alpine columbine is a terrific alternative if you want to add some color to your garden.
Alpine columbine blooms for 4 to 6 weeks from late spring till early summer season and may re-bloom when fall settles.
These plants have a bushy, upright routine of growth. They can grow to a height of 18 to 24 inches. They are brief. They form big colonies in growing seasons, owing to their respected self-seeding quality.
Alpine columbine grows best in well-drained soil, having average to medium moisture. They require rich soils. They likewise need full sun to part shade for best development. They can not make it through in dry or poorly-drained soils. They are easy to grow. They can be grown from seed in spring after the threat of the last frost has actually passed. Alpine columbine brings in butterflies and hummingbirds. They are vulnerable to leaf miner.
They are excellent for home gardens, flower borders, flower beds, reduced the effects of locations, and shade gardens.
The typical name of aquilegia atrata is dark columbine. The word atrata has been originated from a latin word that indicates drab or blackened. The reason why this plant has actually been called so is because of its flowers that are dark purple to black, with dominant yellow-colored stamens.
It is lovely flowering species native to forest cleanings and alpine meadows of switzerland and northern europe. It has numerous branching stems. It is among the most highly looked for columbine flower species that acts as a showstopper in spring gardens because of its inmost colored flowers.
Each stem carries up to 10 flowers. These plants grow to a height of about 24 inches, above the rosette of crow’s- foot leaves.
They need abundant soil for optimal growth. The soil should be humusy. It requires complete sun or part shade for finest growth. It is winter durable (-30 oc). They are draught-resistant. They self-seed and grow prolifically when the soil conditions are satisfactory.
They are a great choice for home gardens, garden borders, and beds.
More typically called rocky mountain columbine, aquilegia caerulea is native to new mexico and arizona. It is known for its two-colored flowers which are star-like. The petals are creamy-white and sepals and stimulates are violet-blue, with yellow-colored hectic endurances. The three colors in one flower make rocky mountain columbine flowers irresistible.
Like other types of columbine flowers, rocky mountain columbine flowers from late spring to early summertime. As they self-seed, they grow prolifically in suitable conditions.
Rocky mountain columbine has an upright, bushy routine. They grow up to a height of about 24 inches. They choose growing in full sun or part shade, in areas that have rich soil. The soil should be well-drained and damp for optimal growth.
These beautiful kinds of columbine flowers make lovely garden borders, beds, cottage gardens, rock gardens, and look excellent in plant containers for windows. Moreover, they perform well as cut flowers and can endure for approximately 2 weeks in a vase.
Aquilegia vulgaris or granny’s bonnet is one of the most popular types of columbine flowers. This species is belonging to europe. These perennial plants are bushy and clump-forming. They are exceptionally attractive, having violet, pink, white, or blue flowers. With short-hooked stimulates and spreading out sepals, the granny’s bonnet makes sure among the most enjoyed kinds of columbine flowers. The leaves of these plants are gray-green in color and round fit and are divided into lobed brochures.
The growing season for aquilegia vulgaris is the same as the other types of columbine plants, that is, from late spring to early summertime.
Various cultivars of aquilegia vulgaris have been established (the barlow series) whose colors include white, pink, red, violet, and blue. The flowers may be single or double and usually either short-spurred or spurless.
They grow in an upright habit approximately a height of 16 to 20 inches. Like other columbine varieties, they too are self-seeding and short-term. They grow best in full sun or part shade, where the soil is well-drained, has average to medium wetness and is abundant.
As they are really appealing and easy to grow, they make great garden borders, garden beds, cottage and rock gardens, and shade gardens. They are also outstanding cut flowers.
Various cultivars of aquilegia vulgaris have been developed which are quite effective. A few of them are:.
- Black barlow (having the darkest blossoms)
- Clementine increased (pink-colored, double flowers)
- Clementine salmon increased (salmon colored flowers)
- Magpie (bicolored flowers, white and dark purple in color)
- Leprechaun (gold and green variegated leaves)
Aquilegia mckana is one of the prettiest kinds of columbine flowers because of their large flowers. The flowers of aquilegia mckana are nodding and brilliantly colored, often bicolored, and have longspurs. They are found in many colors consisting of red and yellow, blue and white, and various combinations of purple and pinks.
They have beautiful foliage that is fern-like. Their blooming season is from late spring to early summer. These perennials have an upright habit of growth. Like all other columbine species, they too are short-lived, and self-seeding. The growth requirements are similar too, which are complete sun or part shade, well-drained, reasonably damp, abundant soil. They are vulnerable to leaf miner.
They are low maintenance plants that make breathtakingly lovely garden borders, beds, home, and shade gardens.
Among the most common types of columbine plant is aquilegia canadensis, frequently known as the red columbine. It has actually been called based upon its flowers. They are a native plant of rocky slopes and forests of eastern the United States and Canada. Red columbine flowers, as the name shows, are red in color with yellow stamens. They are nodding, with stimulated petals that are upwards, and colored sepals (alternating with spreading). The leaves are compound. Not only are the flowers appealing, but the leaves of red columbine are also very attractive.
Red columbine is heat and cold tolerant types. They need complete sun or part shade, with well-drained soil. They perform best in an alkaline ph (6.8 to 7.2). They prefer sandy loam, medium loam, sandy, and limestone-based soil types. They do not need soil that is too rich.
Their appealing flowers make them an excellent addition to gardens. They can even be planted in pots!
Aquilegia x hybrid
Aquilegia x hybrid is understood for its snazzy, stimulated flowers. Their foliage is fern-like. The flowers are discovered in many different colors consisting of pink, white, red, blue, yellow, and violet. The flowers flower from mid-spring till early summer.
These clump-forming seasonal plants grow to a height of up to 3 feet. The fern-like foliage is gray-green to blue-green. The flower stalks have upright spikes and stalks with flowers hang downwards.
They require complete sun to part shade for growth like most of the other columbine types. They need constant moisture. However, the plant would die if the soil ends up being waterlogged. The soil must be well-drained and abundant. They grow aggressively owing to their self-seed character.
They are outstanding cut flowers and make terrific dried flowers for ornamental purposes.
The typical name of aquilegia flabellata is dwarf columbine or fan columbine. They are belonging to japan and korea (eastern asia). This is a dwarf types that grows up to 8 to 12 inches high. Dwarf columbine flowers are blue-violet or pale blue in color, with petals in a creamy-white shade. The leaves are divided and slightly glaucous.
Unlike other types of columbine plants that were talked about above, the dwarf columbine is a slow-growing range. The flowers bloom from april till july. They grow finest in locations that are either full sun or semi-shaded areas as in light woodland. They choose soil type that is light sandy, medium loamy, and well-drained and moist. They can grow in acidic, alkaline, and neutral ph.
Their compact shape makes them a suitable option for rock gardens. They make beautiful garden borders, cottage, and open shade gardens. Blue angel is among the most popular ranges of aquilegia flabellata.
Aquilegia chrysantha is typically referred to as the golden columbine. It is belonging to the southwestern regions of the united states (from utah to texas) and northwestern mexico.
The flowers of the golden columbine have five yellow sepals that are pointed and five yellow petals having long stimulates that job backwards. The flower has yellow-colored stamens in the center. They are bushy seasonal plants that grow to a height of about 3 feet. The flowers are held set up on relatively long stalks. The leaves are often discovered divided into 3 and often in 2 parts.
Like other kinds of columbine ranges, they grow in full sun or part shade. They need a well-drained, damp, and rich soil.
Out of all the varieties of the golden columbine, yellow queen is the most popular type. These columbine flowers are more bright yellow than others in this group. Because of this factor, they are planted in gardens to make the gardens look more gorgeous. They are a good option for home and open shade gardens and garden borders.
Aquilegia pubsecens is typically known as the sierra columbine. It is native to sierra nevada mountains, for this reason named after it. The flowers of this type of columbine are erect, with cream-yellow to pink colored sepals. The blades are cream-yellow. The spurs are yellow, cream, or pink in color. The stamens are so long that they extend beyond the flower blades. The leaves are glabrous and in some cases pilose.
The soil requirements for sierra columbine resemble the rest of its fellow in the group. The soil should be well-drained, damp, and rich. They choose growing in regions that receive complete sun or are part shaded. 
Uses and effectiveness?
Inadequate evidence for.
- Stomach and digestive tract problems.
- Gallbladder conditions.
- A disease caused by vitamin c shortage (scurvy).
- Vitamin c-deficiency (scurvy).
- As a calming representative (tranquilizer).
- Skin rashes.
- Other conditions.
More proof is needed to rank the efficiency of columbine for these uses. 
Uses of wild columbine
Wild columbine has actually been utilized in a variety of folk treatments. North american indians apparently crushed the seeds to use as a headache solution. They are likewise said to have actually prepared infusions from different parts of the plant as a treatment for heart difficulty, toxin ivy, kidney problems, headaches, bladder problems, and fever. Several sources, nevertheless, caution against the use of this plant as a home remedy, considering that the plant comes from a family that includes a number of harmful species.
Other uses of wild columbine consist of boiling the plant as a hair wash. In addition, the crushed seed is said to be pleasantly aromatic and has actually been utilized as a fragrance. Native americans supposedly rubbed the crushed seeds on the hands of men as a love charm. 
Health advantages of columbine
Health benefits of columbine includes:.
For thousands of years, columbine has been used by the indigenous populations of the United States and Canada and europe to treat a variety of skin conditions. You can crush the seeds or roots and integrate them with water to develop a paste or salve that can be placed straight on rashes and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory nature of columbine helps to lower the irritation and soreness of these affected locations. It is likewise efficient for moderate acne, psoriasis, and toxin ivy, along with other plant-derived rashes.
Columbine also works as a reliable painkiller on different parts of the body. The very same sort of paste can be applied to swellings and strained muscles to minimize aches and discomforts, as a result of the very same anti-inflammatory compounds found in the roots and seeds. Creams made from the crushed root and the drawn out oils is very popular for rheumatic discomforts as people age. Those struggling with arthritis can utilize these natural creams to considerably minimize their discomfort. Using columbine on open wounds is dissuaded, as the toxicity might negatively affect the body if it enters the blood stream.
One of the most popular uses of columbine has been in the decrease of headaches. Utilizing small quantities of crushed seeds and often blending them with red wine or water, headaches can rapidly be relieved. Once again, the seeds consist of toxic compounds, so really small amounts are necessary for this treatment, and speaking with an herbalist is extremely recommended.
Crushing the roots and blending them with water has likewise been utilized as a treatment for certain respiratory problems, consisting of blockage and sore throats. By removing the swelling of the respiratory tracts, columbine can assist to speed up the healing process, lower irritation, and remove blockage, which prevents additional illness or infection from germs in the phlegm and sputum.
Cleanse the body
Columbine has long been used to promote sweating, and is understood generally as a reliable remedy to break a fever. If you blend the flowers with water and consume this mixture, fevers can be rapidly eliminated. This very same property also induces urination, so its function as a diuretic makes it important for cleansing the body. By promoting the elimination of excess toxins, salts, fats, and water, columbine assists ease pressure on the kidneys and liver.
If the roots are prepared properly, they can be consumed as a tonic for the stomach, as it can ease inflammation and irritation in the bowels that causes diarrhea and symptoms of ibs (irritable bowel syndrome). It must be consumed in small quantities and prepared by a skilled herbalist.
The effects of columbine on women have been understood for generations. A small cast can be utilized to cause labor in pregnancy, and its properties as a coagulant and astringent can assist to minimize bleeding after shipment. Likewise, columbine is used by lots of natural professionals to minimize menstrual bleeding and reduce a few of the pain and symptoms related to menstruation. 
There isn’t adequate details to understand if columbine is safe for use as a medicine or what the possible negative effects might be.
Special preventative measures and warnings
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: insufficient is learnt about making use of columbine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid usage. 
Approach of administration
The plant is administered as astringent and antidiarrheal in the form of infusion (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water, 3-6 times a day). It is applied externally as healing, astringent and relaxing in the form of organic tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water).
Caution: using herb preparations is not suggested without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The compounds they include may communicate with the subscribed drugs that the patient currently takes, thus removing their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden more compromised important functions of the body thus exposing the client to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions. 
Amazing facts about columbine
- Columbine was called for the latin word columba, which implies dove.
- Columbines belong to the buttercup household. The leaves have a particular narrow base that flares out to scalloped edges. Lots of columbines have gray-blue or blue-green foliage.
- Columbines flower in the spring. Their delicate flowers are frequently multi-colored and might be white, red, yellow, blue, pink, lavender, red, or a combination of these shades.
- Columbines got here in the United States and Canada between 10,000 and 40,000 years back, according to the u.s. Forest service. They migrated from asia, throughout the bering land bridge into alaska.
- The deep-blue columbines discovered growing in the rocky mountain area are direct descendents of the earliest columbines.
- Columbines are wildflowers, native to the majority of temperate areas of the world, including europe and the United States and Canada. There are over 70 types of columbines and many hybrid species. Columbines cross-pollinate quickly, so brand-new species form frequently.
- Columbines form a long taproot, which helps them endure during periods of drought.
- Columbine plants normally grow 1 to 3 feet high and 2 feet broad, depending upon the types. Completely sun, their development tends to be more compact and the plants flower more a lot. In shade, they end up being leggy.
- The columbine’s latin genus name is aquilegia, which refers to the flower’s 5 sepals, which look like an eagle’s talons.
- The long stimulates on the flowers produce nectar. For this reason, columbines are a preferred flower of hummingbirds, butterflies and bees. In woodland areas, the air almost hums as birds and bugs look for this nectar.
- Wild columbines grow in a variety of settings, from dry deserts to mountain woodlands.
- Columbines make a good choice in a naturalized garden setting. Birds and bees are attracted to their colorful blossoms in the spring. Seedpods make yummy snacks for the birds in the fall.
- Columbines are perennials, however they’re not particularly long-lived. The majority of plants die within 2 to 3 years, but they grow easily from seed. If you permit seedpods to develop, brand-new plants will appear every year, although the flowers might not always be true to the initial plant.
- Native americans used the seeds to make an infusion to deal with headaches.
- The white and blue variety a. Caerulea grows throughout the rocky mountains and is colorado’s state flower. The flower was first found in 1820 by hiker edwin james. School children voted in 1899 to make it the state’s flower. The state’s love affair with this flower continued, and in 1915 the song, “where the columbines grow,” became colorado’s state song. In 1925, the state offered the flower secured status.
- Columbine is the name of a city in colorado, as well as numerous subdivisions and areas throughout the littleton, colorado community.
- Leaf miners make tunnels through the columbine leaves. Cut the leaves back after flowering to control this issue, which is undesirable, however rarely deadly to the plant.
- Because of their long taproot, columbines do not transplant quickly, so pick little plants and set them in a permanent location. 
Columbines are short-term perennial plants, however if you let the flower heads go to seed rather than deadheading them, they will readily self-sow and may quickly form a nest of plants when growing conditions are optimum. They have a moderate growth rate, and seeds sprout in about 20 to 30 days. Columbine plants are harmful to human beings.