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Chloride is an ion, specifically, because it has an unfavorable charge, an anion. It forms from the aspect, chlorine. The difference in between an ion and an aspect is that an element (and a compound) has a well balanced charge while ions do not. One very common compound (well balanced charges) of chlorine is sodium chloride (common table salt). When sodium chloride is liquified in water, the sodium forms a positively-charged ion (a cation) and the chlorine forms the negatively-charged chloride anion.
Chloride exists in rainwater, streams, groundwater, seawater, wastewater, metropolitan runoff, human beings (our blood is rather salted), geologic developments, and animal waste streams. Chloride is likewise present in your cooking area table in the salt shaker (sodium chloride). We mine large salt deposits for road salt and water treatment salt based chemicals and likewise you abandon salt mines to store gas (source) and even store hazardous waste. Chloride is commonly associated with other ions, such as sodium, potassium, carbonates, and sulfate (sea water has loads of all of these). Elevated chloride levels can be related to oil/ gas drilling, saltwater invasion, garbage dump leachate, fertilizers, septic system effluent, road salt storage, salt mining, deicing representatives, and saline/brine water deposits. High levels of chloride can assault and compromise metallic piping and components (it promotes deterioration) and prevent the development of plants.
Water is considered to be fresh at < <500 mg/l of liquified salts. It is brackish water from 500 to 30,000 mg/l (3%), saline (like sea water) from 3-5%, and brine from 5 to ~ 28% at which concentration the water is filled; anymore would speed up out of option. These descriptions are based on the salinity of the water that includes all dissolved salts. It is generally the case, however, that it is the chloride anion, specifically at higher concentrations, that controls. Chlorinity, rather than salinity, describes the concentration of simply the chloride. Chloride or brine services are used to produce chlorine gas and deicing agents and potassium chloride is a typical fertilizer. 
Incident in nature
In nature, chloride is discovered mostly in seawater, which has a chloride ion concentration of 19400 mg/liter. Smaller sized quantities, though at higher concentrations, happen in particular inland seas and in subterranean brine wells, such as the excellent salt lake in utah and the dead sea in israel. The majority of chloride salts are soluble in water, thus, chloride-containing minerals are generally just found in abundance in dry climates or deep underground. Some chloride-containing minerals include halite (sodium chloride nacl), sylvite (potassium chloride kcl), bischofite (mgcl2 ∙ 6h2o), carnallite (kcl ∙ mgcl2 ∙ 6h2o), and kainite (kcl ∙ mgso4 ∙ 3h2o). It is likewise found in evaporite minerals such as chlorapatite and sodalite.
Function in biology
Chloride has a significant physiological significance, which includes regulation of osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance and acid-base homeostasis. Chloride exists in all body fluids, and is the most plentiful extracellular anion which accounts for around one third of extracellular fluid’s tonicity.
Chloride is an essential electrolyte, playing a crucial role in preserving cell homeostasis and sending action potentials in neurons. It can flow through chloride channels (consisting of the gabaa receptor) and is transported by kcc2 and nkcc2 transporters.
Chloride is usually (though not constantly) at a greater extracellular concentration, triggering it to have a negative turnaround capacity (around − 61 mv at 37 ° c in a mammalian cell). Particular concentrations of chloride in model organisms are: in both e. Coli and budding yeast are 10– 200 mm (based on medium), in mammalian cells 5– 100 mm and in blood plasma 100 mm.
The concentration of chloride in the blood is called serum chloride, and this concentration is controlled by the kidneys. A chloride ion is a structural part of some proteins; for example, it is present in the amylase enzyme. For these functions, chloride is one of the necessary dietary mineral (noted by its component name chlorine). Serum chloride levels are generally managed by the kidneys through a range of transporters that are present along the nephron. The majority of the chloride, which is filtered by the glomerulus, is reabsorbed by both proximal and distal tubules (majorly by proximal tubule) by both active and passive transportation.
The structure of sodium chloride, exposing the tendency of chloride ions (green spheres) to link to a number of cations.
The presence of chlorides, such as in seawater, considerably gets worse the conditions for pitting rust of the majority of metals (including stainless steels, aluminum and high-alloyed materials). Chloride-induced rust of steel in concrete lead to a local breakdown of the protective oxide kind in alkaline concrete, so that a subsequent localized deterioration attack takes place.
Increased concentrations of chloride can cause a variety of ecological impacts in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. It may contribute to the acidification of streams, mobilize radioactive soil metals by ion exchange, impact the mortality and recreation of marine plants and animals, promote the invasion of saltwater organisms into previously freshwater environments, and hinder the natural mixing of lakes. Sodium chloride has likewise been revealed to change the structure of microbial species at reasonably low concentrations. It can also hinder the denitrification procedure, a microbial procedure necessary to nitrate elimination and the conservation of water quality, and hinder the nitrification and respiration of organic matter. 
What are the functions of chloride?
Chloride is associated with much of our physical functions. Similar to sodium and potassium, chloride creates specific channels in the membranes of our cells which assist to bring different important tasks.
For instance, chloride channels are type in managing the amount of water and the type of substances and nutrients that go in and out of cells. In general, they play a crucial role in keeping the balance of our bodies’ fluids (therefore, assisting to manage our high blood pressure) in addition to the ph.
Chloride is likewise crucial to assist the muscles and heart contract and to assist our afferent neuron bring messages (nerve impulses) in between the brain and the body. More so, this mineral is needed to help red cell exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in both the lungs (taking up oxygen and launching co2) and other parts of the body (providing oxygen and using up co2).
Last but not least, chloride also plays a role in the digestion of foods, by supporting the production and release of hydrochloric acid (hcl) in the stomach, without which foods might not be appropriately absorbed and absorbed. 
Chloride is discovered in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is likewise discovered in many vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride consist of seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives.
Many americans probably get more chloride than they need from salt and the salt in prepared foods. 
What does your body usage sodium chloride for?
Nutrient absorption and transportation.
- Amino acids (building blocks of protein)
Chloride, when it remains in the type of hydrochloric acid (hydrogen and chloride) is also a component of gastric juice. It helps your body digest and absorb nutrients.
Preserving resting energy
It’s likewise how nerves send signals to the brain, your muscles contract, and your heart functions.
Preserving blood pressure and hydration
Your kidneys, brain, and adrenal glands interact to control the quantity of sodium in your body. Chemical signals promote the kidney to either hang on to water so it can be reabsorbed into the bloodstream or get rid of excess water through the urine.
When there’s too much sodium in your blood stream, your brain signals your kidneys to release more water into your blood circulation. This causes a boost in blood volume and high blood pressure. Decreasing your sodium intake can lead to less water being soaked up into the bloodstream. The result is a lower blood pressure. 
Chloride’s function in fluid balance
Chloride aids in fluid balance primarily since it follows sodium in order to preserve charge neutrality. Chloride channels also contribute in regulating fluid secretion, such as pancreatic juice into the small intestine and the circulation of water into mucus. Fluid secretion and mucous are essential for a lot of life’s procedures. Their significance is exemplified in the signs and symptoms of the genetic disease, cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis (cf) is among the most common inherited diseases in individuals of european descent. It is triggered by an anomaly in a protein that transports chloride ions out of the cell. Cf’s signs and symptoms include salty skin, bad digestion and absorption (resulting in poor growth), sticky mucus build-up in the lungs (triggering increased vulnerability to respiratory infections), liver damage, and infertility.
Other functions of chloride
Chloride has several other functions in the body, most significantly in acid-base balance. Blood ph is preserved in a narrow range and the variety of favorably charged compounds is equal to the number of adversely charged compounds. Proteins, such as albumin, along with bicarbonate ions and chloride ions, are adversely charged and help in preserving blood ph. Hydrochloric acid (a stomach acid made up of chlorine and hydrogen) aids in food digestion and likewise avoids the development of undesirable microorganisms in the stomach. Immune-system cells need chloride, and red blood cells use chloride anions to eliminate co2 from the body. 
Chlorine (cl) is a gas that does not exist in a totally free state in nature. But its salt, chloride, is among the minerals essential to the body. The body of an adult consists of about 8.4 g of chloride. It is generally discovered in liquids such as lymph, blood, stomach juices and likewise in cerebrospinal fluid.
The functions of chlorine in the body
Better referred to as salt in our every day lives, chlorine has gustatory virtues. In particular, it permits muscles to agreement, improves food digestion and promotes heart beat. It is likewise known for its ability to manage blood circulation and ensure the transmission of nerve impulses.
The body assimilates chlorine with sodium along the digestion system. This micronutrient keeps the osmotic pressure in the cells. Integrated with sodium, it ensures the integrity of the membrane structure.
Chlorine is associated with the development of gastric juices that promote the food digestion of food. As such, it works in cooperation with hydrogen.
At the level of the blood system, chloride promotes the transportation of co2 in the blood. It also provides the acid-base balance in the body.
Chlorine is also the main part of the fluid that surrounds the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the difference between chlorine, chloride and sodium?
Chloride is the state in which chlorine is present in the body through its salt, i.e. Sodium chloride. 
What is hypochloremia?
Hypochloremia is when you have a low level of chloride in your blood. This could be due to a wide range of conditions.
What is chloride?
Chloride is a vital electrolyte. Electrolytes are minerals that are found in your blood.
These electrolytes assist with:
- Muscle function
- Nerve function
- Keeping the ph of your blood in the typical variety
- Keep your balance of fluids
- You get the majority of your chloride in the form of sodium chloride, or salt, in the food you consume.
Compared to the other electrolytes, there have actually been couple of research studies on chloride irregularities. Critical care units frequently see problems in electrolytes and ph levels, so research study on chlorides has actually been performed because setting. A research study found that among individuals in intensive care units, about 8.8% had low chloride levels.
In individuals who are critically ill, unusual chloride levels are connected to more serious phases of diseases. However the exact factor is unknown.
Symptoms of hypochloremia
There typically aren’t any signs or indications of hypochloremia. But there might be associated signs from underlying causes of hypochloremia.
Signs of electrolyte imbalance include:
- Difficulty breathing
Hypochloremia often appears in addition to hyponatremia, which is when your blood sodium levels are low.
Causes of hypochloremia
Due to the fact that you get chloride from salt, it’s unusual to be nutritionally deficient in chloride. In healthy people, chloride is usually soaked up in your gut. Then it’s transferred in your blood and distributed to your tissues.
Your kidneys keep your body’s overall chloride levels. Problems with your kidneys can lead to an abnormal chloride level in your body.
Hypochloremia can be caused by:
- Extreme sweating
- Kidney problems
Persistent breathing acidosis, which is when your body can’t remove all the carbon dioxide it produces
Syndrome of improper antidiuretic hormonal agent excretion (siadh), when your body makes too much antidiuretic hormones. These hormones help handle the quantity of water in your body.
Metabolic alkalosis, which is when your body’s ph level becomes too alkaline
Use of certain medications like corticosteroids, diuretics, laxatives, and bicarbonates
Cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is often utilized to deal with cancer. However chemotherapy drugs may trigger an electrolyte imbalance in your body. Some negative effects of chemotherapy might disappoint up till months or years after treatment. One of these is kidney issues, which can trigger hypochloremia. 
Causes of low chloride levels
Excessive chloride loss
Blood chloride levels can drop if it is excreted in extreme amounts through the kidneys or through the digestive system.
Through the kidneys, this is due to:
- Extreme use of diuretics
- Genetic defects of electrolyte channels in the kidneys (e.g., bartter’s and gitelman syndromes)
- High concentration of co2 in the blood with increased bicarbonate consumption (breathing acidosis)
- Excess levels of the hormone aldosterone in blood
Through the digestion system, this is because of:
- Regular throwing up
- Abuse of laxatives
- Stomach pumping
- Evacuation through a surgical opening of completion of the bowel through the tummy (ileostomy)
- Narrowing of the opening of the stomach into the bowel
- Watery diarrhea
- Secretion through tumors in the bowel (mckittrick-wheelock syndrome)
- Excessive chloride loss– possibly due to throwing up, watery diarrhea, laxative abuse, or other health issues– can trigger low chloride blood levels.
Inadequate chloride intake
The advised minimum everyday consumption of chloride is 2.3 g. Because the typical adult takes in 5.8-11.8 g/day, chloride malnutrition is extremely unusual.
A soy-based formula with really low chloride material (0-2 meq/l) caused low blood chloride levels and metabolic alkalosis in babies in a study on 13 people. It likewise occurred in 4 out of 153 infants with mothers with consuming disorders.
Likewise, a liquid nutritional product for people with serious disabilities triggered chloride deficiency in a research study on 59 people.
Cystic tissue scarring is a hereditary syndrome that causes low blood chloride levels since it is not taken in through the kidneys and bowel
Although exceptionally uncommon, insufficient dietary chloride intake is a possible cause of low chloride blood levels.
Excess fluid consumption
Infusion with high volumes of low-salt fluids lowers the concentration of electrolytes (including chloride) in the blood.
People with congestive heart failure keep large amounts of fluids and establish resistance to diuretics, which triggers low blood chloride levels.
The excessive release of the antidiuretic hormonal agent vasopressin causes an increased return of water to the blood circulation by the kidneys and hence reduces electrolyte levels.
High volumes of diluted, low-salt fluids can minimize the levels of chloride and other electrolytes in the blood.
Metabolic alkalosis (high blood ph) is an outcome of:
- Increased bicarbonate production/intake
- Decreased bicarbonate excretion
- Loss of hydrogen ions
- Some reasons for metabolic alkalosis consist of
- Throwing up
- Medications, like diuretics that increase urination of hydrogen ions
- Kidney concerns that lower the urination of hco3-
- Taking a lot of antacids
The loss of a favorably charged electrolyte (hydrogen) and/or accumulation of a negatively charged electrolyte (bicarbonate) promotes the elimination of chloride to stabilize positive and negative charge.
Infusion or intake of high volumes of sodium bicarbonate triggers blood alkalosis and might cause chloride being exchanged for bicarbonate to preserve blood neutrality.
Due to the fact that the blood concentration of positively charged electrolytes must equate to that of negatively charged electrolytes, conditions that cause the loss of sodium and potassium often result in low blood chloride levels.
Low chloride levels and genetics
The list below genetic conditions are associated with abnormally low chloride levels.
Bartter’s syndrome is an uncommon acquired flaw of the kidney cells in the part of the kidney that reabsorbs electrolytes (loop of henle) and is identified by:
- Potassium wasting
- Low blood chloride levels
- Metabolic alkalosis (high blood ph)
- High blood renin levels
- High aldosterone secretion
- Normal high blood pressure
- High urine prostaglandin levels
- Regular requirement to consume and urinate
The syndrome is brought on by anomalies in the na+/ k+/ 2cl- cotransporter 2 (nkcc2), in addition to in the following associated proteins:
- Romk (a protein that moves potassium out of the cells)
- Clc-kb (a protein that moves chloride out of the cells)
- Casr (a protein that spots calcium levels and utilizes them as a signal to activate electrolyte transporters)
Gitelman’s syndrome is a hereditary disease with similar symptoms to bartter’s (metabolic alkalosis with low potassium, low chloride, high renin, and high aldosterone levels in the blood), however due to flaws in the kidney cells of a various region (distal convoluted tubule). The condition is brought on by mutations in the na+/ cl- cotransporter (ncct).
Cystic tissue scarring
Cystic tissue scarring is a hereditary disorder defined by the following signs:
- High salt concentration in sweat
- Mucus buildup
- Regular lung illness
- Damage in the air passages
- Regular coughing
- Pancreatic failure
- Development of diabetes
- Low bone mineral density
- Kidney failure
- Inability to grow and put on weight (in children)
- Blood clotting conditions
Addison’s illness is an uncommon hereditary disorder in which the glands above the kidneys are defective and produce low levels of the hormonal agents cortisol and aldosterone. The primary symptoms of this disorder are:
- Generalized weakness and fatigue
- Anorexia nervosa
- Weight reduction
- Yearning for salt
- Darkening of skin areas
- Low high blood pressure
- Low blood levels of sodium and chloride
- High blood levels of potassium
Addison’s illness is due to anomalies in:
- Aire (a gene causing autoimmune illness in numerous organs)
- Abcd1 (a protein that transports fatty acids)
- Dax-1 (a protein that ensures the correct development of the kidneys and glands above them).
- Aladin (a protein of the nuclear envelope)
Hereditary chloride diarrhea
Congenital chloride diarrhea is an uncommon genetic disease characterized by the production of watery diarrhea with high chloride concentration. It triggers dehydration, metabolic alkalosis, and low levels of blood chloride, sodium, and potassium. The condition is due to problems in the bowel chloride and bicarbonate transporter slc26a3.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis
This syndrome is defined by decreased water removal, continued production or action of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and low blood sodium and chloride levels.
The illness is brought on by activating anomalies in the vasopressin receptor avpr2, which results in the excessive build-up of water.
Repercussions of low chloride levels
Low chloride levels and death rate
A relationship between low blood chloride levels and increased death rate has actually been demonstrated in several studies on:
- Over 9000 healthy people
- Nearly 6000 people with heart failure
- Practically 1500 critically-ill individuals
- Over 3000 individuals recuperating from a stroke
- Nearly 300 individuals with extreme blood pressure inside the lung vessels
Similarly, low blood levels of chloride, sodium, and albumins due to malnutrition lowered the survival of hiv clients taking antiretroviral treatment in a research study on over 600 african females.
Low chloride levels and kidney function
The occurrence of kidney injury increased in patients with low blood chloride levels in a research study on over 13000 individuals undergoing contrast-enhanced tomography.
In another study on over 6000 seriously ill individuals, low blood chloride was a threat aspect for the advancement of kidney injury. 
How do you diagnose hypochloremia?
The medical diagnosis of hypochloremia is made on the basis of the client’s history of the disease or medication causing the imbalance, in addition to the lab evaluation of chloride values. A chloride blood test is performed to find irregular concentrations of chloride. As hypochloremia co-exists with other electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatremia, hypokalemia (low potassium), blood tests for other electrolytes are also performed to evaluate for a variety of conditions. When serum chloride is less than 95 meq/l, the client is considered to have hypochloremia.
If an electrolyte imbalance is detected during the tests, your physician may recommend electrolyte testing at routine periods to keep track of the effectiveness of treatment, till the results are within the regular variety. If an acid-base imbalance is presumed, they may think about carrying out tests for blood gases to more examine the intensity and cause of the imbalance. Occasionally, a urinary chloride test is performed to evaluate the reason for loss of salts, such as in cases of excessive throwing up, dehydration, or use of diuretics where urinary chloride would be very low. Excess of certain hormones such as aldosterone or cortisol can likewise impact electrolyte levels.
How do you treat hypochloremia?
Treatment is targeted at therapy for the hidden disorder. Patient is generally administered diuretics, or replacement of electrolytes with chloride salts to make up for the loss of chloride from the body. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) are utilized in patients when the condition is triggered due to a specific inherited condition (bartter syndrome) that causes an imbalance in electrolytes. Hydrochloric acid (hcl) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be utilized in some severe scenarios. 
What is hyperchloremia?
Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte imbalance and is indicated by a high level of chloride in the blood. The normal adult value for chloride is 97-107 meq/l.
Chloride is an essential electrolyte and works to ensure that your body’s metabolism is working properly. Your kidneys manage the levels of chloride in your blood. Therefore, when there is a disturbance in your blood chloride levels, it is typically related to your kidneys. Chloride assists keep the acid and base balance in the body.
Reasons for hyperchloremia:
Causes of hyperchloremia may consist of:.
- Loss of body fluids from extended vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or high fever (dehydration).
- High levels of blood sodium.
- Kidney failure, or kidney conditions
- Diabetes insipidus or diabetic coma
- Drugs such as: androgens, corticosteroids, estrogens, and particular diuretics.
Many individuals do not discover any signs of hyperchloremia, unless they are experiencing extremely high or really low levels of chloride in their blood.
Dehydration, fluid loss, or high levels of blood sodium may be noted.
You may be experiencing other kinds of fluid loss, such as diarrhea, or throwing up when experiencing hyperchloremia.
You may be a diabetic, and have poor control over your blood sugar level levels (they might be really high). 
What’s the relation to chemotherapy?
People undergoing chemotherapy might end up being nauseated or vomit, causing dehydration that causes hyperchloremia.
Chemotherapy can also harm the kidneys, harming their capability to preserve the body’s balance of electrolytes. Individuals taking chemotherapy drugs that harm the kidneys may require regular electrolyte tests.
As chemotherapy can damage the body, individuals with hyperchloremia who are going through chemotherapy might experience more intense signs.
An individual needs to keep their medical professional notified of any symptoms they experience, especially if they all of a sudden worsen.
Drinking frequently, while preventing alcohol or caffeine, may help to deal with hyperchloremia.
In most cases, a medical diagnosis of hyperchloremia will need extra testing to uncover the cause.
Bloodwork might reveal an issue with the kidneys or liver. People should likewise offer their medical professionals with details about their diet, especially if they take in big amounts of salt.
Since some medications can change chloride levels, it is necessary that individuals inform their physician about all the medications they are taking, consisting of organic supplements and over-the-counter drugs.
It may be necessary to attend to an underlying medical condition, such as liver cirrhosis, first. People who have problems with their endocrine system– a group of glands that produce hormones– may need hormonal agent treatments or an assessment with an endocrinologist.
Some treatment alternatives include:.
- Taking medications to prevent queasiness, throwing up, or diarrhea
- Changing drugs if they are a consider the electrolyte imbalance
- Drinking 2– 3 quarts of fluid every day
- Getting intravenous fluids
- Consuming a better, more balanced diet plan
- Treating underlying psychological health problems if an eating disorder is the offender
- Preventing alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin
- Acquiring much better control over blood sugar levels, considering that unchecked diabetes can cause electrolyte imbalances
- Prompt treatment can avoid major negative effects, so individuals who experience symptoms of hyperchloremia need to inform their doctor instantly.
Hyperchloremia can be tough to prevent, especially when it is caused by a medical condition such as addison’s illness. For individuals who are at danger of developing hyperchloremia, some strategies that may help consist of:.
- Talking to a medical professional about medications that can trigger hyperchloremia.
- Discussing choices for minimizing the effects of drugs that can cause hyperchloremia. For example, a person might need to drink more water or get iv fluids when they feel dehydrated.
- Consuming a balanced diet, and avoiding severe food constraints.
- Taking diabetes medications exactly as a physician recommends.
In otherwise healthy individuals, hyperchloremia is very uncommon. Merely drinking enough fluid and avoiding excessive salt consumption can prevent this electrolyte imbalance. 
Does for chloride, as well as other nutrients, are supplied in the dietary referral consumption (dris) established by the food and nutrition board at the nationwide academies of sciences, engineering, and medicine. Dri is a term for a set of referral intakes that are used to plan and evaluate the nutrient consumption of healthy people. These worths, which differ by age and sex, consist of:.
Suggested dietary allowance (rda): the average everyday level of intake that suffices to satisfy the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97% to 98%) healthy individuals. An rda is an intake level based on scientific research proof.
Appropriate intake (ai): this level is established when there is inadequate scientific research study proof to establish an rda. It is set at a level that is thought to ensure sufficient nutrition.
Dietary recommendation consumption for chloride:.
- 0 to 6 months old: 0.18 grams per day (g/day)
- 7 to 12 months old: 0.57 g/day
- 1 to 3 years: 1.5 g/day
- 4 to 8 years: 1.9 g/day
- 9 to 13 years: 2.3 g/day
Adolescents and adults (ai)
- Males and women, age 14 to 50: 2.3 g/day
- Males and females, age 51 to 70: 2.0 g/day
- Males and females, age 71 and over: 1.8 g/day
- Pregnant and breast feeding women of any ages: 2.3 g/day 
Drug interactions consist of: none reported.
Nutrient interactions include:.
The 3 things to remember about chloride are:.
- Chloride adds to the typical performance of the digestion system in the stomach.
- You can cover your daily needs of chloride through table salt or foods like prawns, celery and lettuce, which naturally contain chloride.
- It’s presently unclear what excessive chloride alone does to your health. However, many of the foods that contain chloride likewise consist of sodium, which is known to be hazardous in excessive amounts. To avoid the unfavorable health effects connected with high sodium intake, prevent having more than 5 grams of salt daily. 
Chloride, chemical compound including chlorine. Many chlorides are salts that are formed either by direct union of chlorine with a metal or by response of hydrochloric acid (a water service of hydrogen chloride) with a metal, a metal oxide, or an inorganic base. Chloride salts consist of sodium chloride (common salt), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonium chloride. A lot of chloride salts are easily soluble in water, however mercurous chloride (calomel) and silver chloride are insoluble, and lead chloride is just slightly soluble. Some chlorides, e.g., antimony chloride and bismuth chloride, decompose in water, forming oxychlorides. Lots of metal chlorides can be melted without decomposition; 2 exceptions are the chlorides of gold and platinum. The majority of metal chlorides perform electricity when fused or dissolved in water and can be disintegrated by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal. Chlorine forms substances with the other halogens and with oxygen; when chlorine is the more electronegative component in the compound, the substance is called a chloride.